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Markov chain sampling has recently received considerable attention in particular in the context of Bayesian computation and maximum likelihood estimation. This paper discusses the use of Markov chain splitting, originally developed for the theoretical analysis of general state space Markov chains, to introduce regeneration into Markov chain samplers. This(More)
Small RNAs of 21-25 nucleotides (nt), including small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and microRNAs (miRNAs), act as guide RNAs to silence target-gene expression in a sequence-specific manner. In addition to a Dicer homolog, DCL1, the biogenesis of miRNAs in Arabidopsis requires another protein, HEN1. miRNAs are reduced in abundance and increased in size in hen1(More)
Service composition is highly desirable in peer-to-peer (P2P) systems where application services are naturally dispersed on distributed peers. However, it is challenging to provide high quality and failure resilient service composition in P2P systems due to the decentralization requirement and dynamic peer arrivals/departures. We present an integrated P2P(More)
Methylation on the base or the ribose is prevalent in eukaryotic ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) and is thought to be crucial for ribosome biogenesis and function. Artificially introduced 2'-O-methyl groups in small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) can stabilize siRNAs in serum without affecting their activities in RNA interference in mammalian cells. Here, we show that(More)
The sulfolipid sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol is one of the three nonphosphorous glycolipids that provide the bulk of the structural lipids in photosynthetic membranes of seed plants. Unlike the galactolipids, sulfolipid is anionic at physiological pH because of its 6-deoxy-6-sulfonate-glucose (sulfoquinovose) head group. The biosynthesis of this lipid(More)