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Markov chain sampling has recently received considerable attention in particular in the context of Bayesian computation and maximum likelihood estimation. This paper discusses the use of Markov chain splitting, originally developed for the theoretical analysis of general state space Markov chains, to introduce regeneration into Markov chain samplers. This(More)
Service composition is highly desirable in peer-to-peer (P2P) systems where application services are naturally dispersed on distributed peers. However, it is challenging to provide high quality and failure resilient service composition in P2P systems due to the decentralization requirement and dynamic peer arrivals/departures. In this paper, we present an(More)
Small RNAs of 21-25 nucleotides (nt), including small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and microRNAs (miRNAs), act as guide RNAs to silence target-gene expression in a sequence-specific manner. In addition to a Dicer homolog, DCL1, the biogenesis of miRNAs in Arabidopsis requires another protein, HEN1. miRNAs are reduced in abundance and increased in size in hen1(More)
Intergenic transcription by RNA Polymerase II (Pol II) is widespread in plant and animal genomes, but the functions of intergenic transcription or the resulting noncoding transcripts are poorly understood. Here, we show that Arabidopsis Pol II is indispensable for endogenous siRNA-mediated transcriptional gene silencing (TGS) at intergenic low-copy-number(More)
Methylation on the base or the ribose is prevalent in eukaryotic ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) and is thought to be crucial for ribosome biogenesis and function. Artificially introduced 2'-O-methyl groups in small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) can stabilize siRNAs in serum without affecting their activities in RNA interference in mammalian cells. Here, we show that(More)