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Mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases comprise a family of ubiquitous proline-directed, protein-serine/threonine kinases, which participate in signal transduction pathways that control intracellular events including acute responses to hormones and major developmental changes in organisms. MAP kinases lie in protein kinase cascades. This review discusses(More)
Individuals with 22q11.2 microdeletions show behavioral and cognitive deficits and are at high risk of developing schizophrenia. We analyzed an engineered mouse strain carrying a chromosomal deficiency spanning a segment syntenic to the human 22q11.2 locus. We uncovered a previously unknown alteration in the biogenesis of microRNAs (miRNAs) and identified a(More)
The effects of technical progress on relative factor prices in the two-country, two-good, two-factor Heckscher-Ohlin model are investigated. Technical progress is classified according to factor-augmenting bias, factor-using bias, and sector bias. A complete set of relations between technical progress parameters and relative factor prices, depending on the(More)
To evaluate evidence for de novo etiologies in schizophrenia, we sequenced at high coverage the exomes of families recruited from two populations with distinct demographic structures and history. We sequenced a total of 795 exomes from 231 parent-proband trios enriched for sporadic schizophrenia cases, as well as 34 unaffected trios. We observed in cases an(More)
Ectomycorrhizal fungal communities have been characterized in a number of ways. Here we compare colonized root-tip and mycelia views of an ectomycorrhizal fungal community. Ectomycorrhizal fungi, both as mycelia and colonized root tips, were identified in soil samples taken from a pine plantation. We determined that for some ectomycorrhizal fungal species(More)
Ectomycorrhizal fungal communities can be structured by abiotic and biotic factors. Here, we present evidence for community structuring by species interactions. We sampled ectomycorrhizas and forest floor seven times during a 13-month period. The presence of various ectomycorrhizal fungal species was determined for each sample, and species co-occurrence(More)
Schizophrenia is an etiologically heterogeneous psychiatric disease, which exists in familial and nonfamilial (sporadic) forms. Here, we examine the possibility that rare de novo copy number (CN) mutations with relatively high penetrance contribute to the genetic component of schizophrenia. We carried out a whole-genome scan and implemented a number of(More)
Despite its high heritability, a large fraction of individuals with schizophrenia do not have a family history of the disease (sporadic cases). Here we examined the possibility that rare de novo protein-altering mutations contribute to the genetic component of schizophrenia by sequencing the exomes of 53 sporadic cases, 22 unaffected controls and their(More)
We have cloned and characterized cDNAs encoding the zebrafish IGF ligands and receptors. Sequence comparison showed that the primary structures of zebrafish IGF-I, IGF-II, and IGF-I receptors (IGF-IRs) have been highly conserved in vertebrates. In contrast to the presence of a single IGF-IR gene in mammals, two distinct IGF-IR genes, termed igf-1ra and(More)
Over the last fifteen years it has become established that 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is a true genetic risk factor for schizophrenia. Carriers of deletions in chromosome 22q11.2 develop schizophrenia at rate of 25-30% and such deletions account for as many as 1-2% of cases of sporadic schizophrenia in the general population. Access to a relatively(More)