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Studies of epigenetic modifications would benefit from improved methods for high-throughput methylation profiling. We introduce two complementary approaches that use next-generation sequencing technology to detect cytosine methylation. In the first method, we designed approximately 10,000 bisulfite padlock probes to profile approximately 7,000 CpG locations(More)
Metazoan transcription is controlled through either coordinated recruitment of transcription machinery to the gene promoter or regulated pausing of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) in early elongation. We report that a striking difference between genes that use these distinct regulatory strategies lies in the "default" chromatin architecture specified by their(More)
Chromosomal aneuploidy is the major reason why couples opt for prenatal diagnosis. Current methods for definitive diagnosis rely on invasive procedures, such as chorionic villus sampling and amniocentesis, and are associated with a risk of fetal miscarriage. Fetal DNA has been found in maternal plasma but exists as a minor fraction among a high background(More)
Adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing leads to transcriptome diversity and is important for normal brain function. To date, only a handful of functional sites have been identified in mammals. We developed an unbiased assay to screen more than 36,000 computationally predicted nonrepetitive A-to-I sites using massively parallel target capture and DNA(More)
DNA methylation has been traditionally viewed as a highly stable epigenetic mark in postmitotic cells. However, postnatal brains appear to show stimulus-induced methylation changes, at least in a few identified CpG dinucleotides. How extensively the neuronal DNA methylome is regulated by neuronal activity is unknown. Using a next-generation sequencing-based(More)
A new generation of technologies is poised to reduce DNA sequencing costs by several orders of magnitude. But our ability to fully leverage the power of these technologies is crippled by the absence of suitable 'front-end' methods for isolating complex subsets of a mammalian genome at a scale that matches the throughput at which these platforms will(More)
Short-term laboratory evolution of bacteria followed by genomic sequencing provides insight into the mechanism of adaptive evolution, such as the number of mutations needed for adaptation, genotype-phenotype relationships, and the reproducibility of adaptive outcomes. In the present study, we describe the genome sequencing of 11 endpoints of Escherichia(More)
Current DNA methylation assays are limited in the flexibility and efficiency of characterizing a large number of genomic targets. We report a method to specifically capture an arbitrary subset of genomic targets for single-molecule bisulfite sequencing for digital quantification of DNA methylation at single-nucleotide resolution. A set of ~30,000 padlock(More)
Bacterial survival requires adaptation to different environmental perturbations such as exposure to antibiotics, changes in temperature or oxygen levels, DNA damage, and alternative nutrient sources. During adaptation, bacteria often develop beneficial mutations that confer increased fitness in the new environment. Adaptation to the loss of a major(More)
BACKGROUND Isobutanol is a promising next-generation biofuel with demonstrated high yield microbial production, but the toxicity of this molecule reduces fermentation volumetric productivity and final titer. Organic solvent tolerance is a complex, multigenic phenotype that has been recalcitrant to rational engineering approaches. We apply experimental(More)