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Twenty-four-nucleotide small interfering (si)RNAs are central players in RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM), a process that establishes and maintains DNA methylation at transposable elements to ensure genome stability in plants. The plant-specific RNA polymerase IV (Pol IV) is required for siRNA biogenesis and is believed to transcribe RdDM loci to produce(More)
Glutamate, the most abundant excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian CNS, plays a central role in many neuronal functions, such as long-term potentiation, which is necessary for learning and memory formation. The fast excitatory glutamate neurotransmission is mediated by ionotropic receptors that include AMPA/kainate and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)(More)
The entorhinal cortex (EC) is a part of the hippocampal complex that is essential to learning and memory, and nicotine affects memory by activating nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in the hippocampal complex. However, it is not clear what types of neurons in the EC are sensitive to nicotine and whether they play a role in nicotine-induced memory(More)
The Support Vector Classification (SVC) model was constructed in this study by applying the near infrared (NIR) analysis technology combined with the chemometrics method to classify and distinguish 11 types of vegetable oil, including "restaurant waste oil". Partial least squares-discriminate analysis (PLS-DA) and GA-SVC classification models were(More)
Recurrent and spontaneous seizures in epilepsy result from poorly defined cell signaling aberrations thought to include synaptic and extracellular matrix remodeling. Here we have used a rat hippocampal kindling model to study cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) gene expression in epileptogenesis. COX-2, encoded in an early-response gene, increases in a synaptic(More)
High-resolution DNA sequencing was used to identify the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) -A, -B, -C, and -DRB1 alleles found in 552 individuals from the United States indicating Southern European (Italian or Spanish) heritage. A total of 46 HLA-A, 80 HLA-B, 32 HLA-C, and 50 DRB1 alleles were identified. Frequent alleles included A*02:01:01G (allele frequency =(More)
Cys-loop ligand-gated nicotinic ACh receptors (nAChRs) and G protein-coupled muscarinic ACh receptors (mAChRs) are expressed on rat hippocampal interneurones where they can regulate excitability, synaptic communication and cognitive function. Even though both nAChRs and mAChRs appear to co-localize to the same interneurones, it is not clear whether there is(More)
A unique feature of temporal lobe epilepsy is the formation of recurrent excitatory connections among granule cells of the dentate gyrus as a result of mossy fiber sprouting. This novel circuit contributes to a reduced threshold for granule cell synchronization. In the rat, activity of the recurrent mossy fiber pathway is restrained by the neoexpression and(More)
In flowering plants, anther and pollen development is critical for male reproductive success. The anther cuticle and pollen exine play an essential role, and in many cereals, such as rice, orbicules/ubisch bodies are also thought to be important for pollen development. The formation of the anther cuticle, exine and orbicules is associated with the(More)
AIM To elucidate the role of NF-kB activation in the development of multiple organ dysfunction (MOD) during acute obstructive cholangitis (AOC) in rats. METHODS Forty-two Wistar rats were divided into three groups: the AOC group, the group of bile duct ligation (BDL group), and the sham operation group (SO group). All the animals in the three groups were(More)