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Twenty-four-nucleotide small interfering (si)RNAs are central players in RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM), a process that establishes and maintains DNA methylation at transposable elements to ensure genome stability in plants. The plant-specific RNA polymerase IV (Pol IV) is required for siRNA biogenesis and is believed to transcribe RdDM loci to produce(More)
The entorhinal cortex (EC) is a part of the hippocampal complex that is essential to learning and memory, and nicotine affects memory by activating nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in the hippocampal complex. However, it is not clear what types of neurons in the EC are sensitive to nicotine and whether they play a role in nicotine-induced memory(More)
The Support Vector Classification (SVC) model was constructed in this study by applying the near infrared (NIR) analysis technology combined with the chemometrics method to classify and distinguish 11 types of vegetable oil, including "restaurant waste oil". Partial least squares-discriminate analysis (PLS-DA) and GA-SVC classification models were(More)
Recurrent and spontaneous seizures in epilepsy result from poorly defined cell signaling aberrations thought to include synaptic and extracellular matrix remodeling. Here we have used a rat hippocampal kindling model to study cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) gene expression in epileptogenesis. COX-2, encoded in an early-response gene, increases in a synaptic(More)
Glutamate, the most abundant excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian CNS, plays a central role in many neuronal functions, such as long-term potentiation, which is necessary for learning and memory formation. The fast excitatory glutamate neurotransmission is mediated by ionotropic receptors that include AMPA/kainate and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)(More)
In flowering plants, anther and pollen development is critical for male reproductive success. The anther cuticle and pollen exine play an essential role, and in many cereals, such as rice, orbicules/ubisch bodies are also thought to be important for pollen development. The formation of the anther cuticle, exine and orbicules is associated with the(More)
Cys-loop ligand-gated nicotinic ACh receptors (nAChRs) and G protein-coupled muscarinic ACh receptors (mAChRs) are expressed on rat hippocampal interneurones where they can regulate excitability, synaptic communication and cognitive function. Even though both nAChRs and mAChRs appear to co-localize to the same interneurones, it is not clear whether there is(More)
3' uridylation is increasingly recognized as a conserved RNA modification process associated with RNA turnover in eukaryotes. 2'-O-methylation on the 3' terminal ribose protects micro(mi)RNAs from 3' truncation and 3' uridylation in Arabidopsis. Previously, we identified HESO1 as the nucleotidyl transferase that uridylates most unmethylated miRNAs in vivo,(More)
Generation of manifold mesh is an urgent issue in mathematical simulations of biomolecule using boundary element methods (BEM) or finite element method (FEM). Defects, such as not closed mesh, intersection of elements and missing of small structures, exist in surface meshes generated by most of the current meshing method. Usually the molecular surface(More)
A parallel finite element simulator, ichannel, is developed for ion transport through three-dimensional ion channel systems that consist of protein and membrane. The coordinates of heavy atoms of the protein are taken from the Protein Data Bank and the membrane is represented as a slab. The simulator contains two components: a parallel adaptive finite(More)