Bin Tu

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The entorhinal cortex (EC) is a part of the hippocampal complex that is essential to learning and memory, and nicotine affects memory by activating nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in the hippocampal complex. However, it is not clear what types of neurons in the EC are sensitive to nicotine and whether they play a role in nicotine-induced memory(More)
OBJECTIVE Seizures have been implicated as a cause of secondary brain injury, but the systemic and cerebral physiologic effects of seizures after acute brain injury are poorly understood. METHODS We analyzed intracortical electroencephalographic (EEG) and multimodality physiological recordings in 48 comatose subarachnoid hemorrhage patients to better(More)
Recurrent and spontaneous seizures in epilepsy result from poorly defined cell signaling aberrations thought to include synaptic and extracellular matrix remodeling. Here we have used a rat hippocampal kindling model to study cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) gene expression in epileptogenesis. COX-2, encoded in an early-response gene, increases in a synaptic(More)
A parallel finite element simulator, ichannel, is developed for ion transport through three-dimensional ion channel systems that consist of protein and membrane. The coordinates of heavy atoms of the protein are taken from the Protein Data Bank and the membrane is represented as a slab. The simulator contains two components: a parallel adaptive finite(More)
3' uridylation is increasingly recognized as a conserved RNA modification process associated with RNA turnover in eukaryotes. 2'-O-methylation on the 3' terminal ribose protects micro(mi)RNAs from 3' truncation and 3' uridylation in Arabidopsis. Previously, we identified HESO1 as the nucleotidyl transferase that uridylates most unmethylated miRNAs in vivo,(More)
Cys-loop ligand-gated nicotinic ACh receptors (nAChRs) and G protein-coupled muscarinic ACh receptors (mAChRs) are expressed on rat hippocampal interneurones where they can regulate excitability, synaptic communication and cognitive function. Even though both nAChRs and mAChRs appear to co-localize to the same interneurones, it is not clear whether there is(More)
In the pilocarpine model of temporal lobe epilepsy, mossy fibers coexpress the inhibitory transmitter neuropeptide Y (NPY) with glutamate. The effects of endogenous and applied NPY on recurrent mossy fiber synaptic transmission were investigated with the use of whole-cell voltage-clamp and field recordings in rat hippocampal slices. Applied NPY reversibly(More)
In the epileptic brain, hippocampal dentate granule cells become synaptically interconnected through the sprouting of mossy fibers. This new circuitry is expected to facilitate epileptiform discharge. Prolonged seizures induce the long-lasting neoexpression of neuropeptide Y (NPY) in mossy fibers. NPY is released spontaneously from recurrent mossy fiber(More)
OBJECTIVE Traumatic brain injury (TBI) results in persistent disruption of brain metabolism that has yet to be mechanistically defined. Early post-traumatic seizures are one potential mechanism for metabolic crisis and hence could be a therapeutic target. We hypothesized that seizures and pseudoperiodic discharges (PDs) may be mechanistically linked to(More)
Normal uptake, transportation, and assimilation of primary nutrients are essential to plant growth. Tracheary elements (TEs) are tissues responsible for the transport of water and minerals and characterized by patterned secondary cell wall (SCW) thickening. Exocysts are involved in the regulation of SCW deposition by mediating the targeted transport of(More)