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Norepinephrine released by the sympathetic nerve terminals regulates the immune system primarily via its stimulation of beta(2)-adrenergic receptor (beta(2)AR), but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain to be elicited. Beta(2)AR, a well-studied G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), is functionally regulated by beta-arrestin2, which not only causes(More)
The major function of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) is to eliminate pathogen-infected and tumorigenic cells. This is mediated mainly through the exocytosis of lytic granules (LGs) containing cytotoxic components, such as perforin and granzymes at the immunological synapse (IS). The soluble NSF attachment receptor (SNARE) protein isoforms are well known to(More)
SNARE proteins are essential fusion mediators for many intracellular trafficking events. Here, we investigate the role of Syntaxin7 (Stx7) in the release of lytic granules from cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). We show that Stx7 is expressed in CTLs and is preferentially localized to the region of lytic granule release, the immunological synapse (IS).(More)
Lytic granule (LG)-mediated apoptosis is the main mechanism by which CTL kill virus-infected and tumorigenic target cells. CTL form a tight junction with the target cells, which is called the immunological synapse (IS). To avoid unwanted killing of neighboring cells, exocytosis of lytic granules (LG) is tightly controlled and restricted to the IS. In this(More)
Chromatin modification is considered to be a fundamental mechanism of regulating gene expression to generate coordinated responses to environmental changes, however, whether it could be directly regulated by signals mediated by G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), the largest surface receptor family, is not known. Here, we show that stimulation of(More)
Calcium (Ca2+) influx is required for the activation and function of all cells in the immune system. It is mediated mainly by store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) through Ca2+ release-activated Ca2+ (CRAC) channels located in the plasma membrane. CRAC channels are composed of ORAI proteins that form the channel pore and are activated by stromal interaction(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE To clarify the utility of serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) as a biomarker for epilepsy diagnosis and severity. METHODS Serum BDNF levels in 135 consecutive people with epilepsy meeting our criteria were assessed. Controls were 34 healthy individuals who over 12 months or longer had no complaints or signs of a(More)
Hereditary gingival fibromatosis (HGF, MIM 135300; approved gene symbol GINGF) is an oral disease characterized by enlargement of gingiva. Recently, a locus for autosomal dominant HGF has been mapped to an 11-cM region on chromosome 2p21. In the current investigation, we genotyped four Chinese HGF families using polymorphic microsatellite markers on 2p21.(More)
Killing cancer cells by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) and by natural killer (NK) cells is of vital importance. Cancer cell proliferation and apoptosis depend on the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration, and the expression of numerous ion channels with the ability to control intracellular Ca(2+) concentrations has been correlated with cancer. A rise of(More)
Ca(2+) homeostasis controls a diversity of cellular processes including proliferation and apoptosis. A very important aspect of Ca(2+) signaling is how different Ca(2+) signals are translated into specific cell functions. In T cells, Ca(2+) signals are induced following the recognition of antigen by the T cell receptor and depend mainly on Ca(2+) influx(More)