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The bioactivity of neuropeptides can be regulated by a variety of post-translational modifications, including proteolytic processing. Here, gene-targeted mice producing defective prohormone convertase 2 (PC2) were used to examine the post-translational processing of two neuroendocrine prohormones, pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) and pro-orphanin FQ(More)
Our previous work on real-valued function optimization problems had shown that cultural learning emerged as the result of meta-level interaction or swarming of knowledge sources, " knowledge swarms " in the belief space. These meta-level swarms induced the swarming of individuals in the population space, " Cultural Swarms ". The interaction of these(More)
Cognitive impairment in multiple sclerosis is difficult to study because of the heterogeneity and variability of this disease. The gold standard for measurement of cognitive function in multiple sclerosis is a full battery of neurocognitive tests, which is time consuming and expensive. Some cognitive tests like the PASAT, a measure of working verbal memory(More)
The serine protease prohormone convertase 2 (PC2), principally involved in the processing of polypeptide hormone precursors in neuroendocrine tissues, requires interaction with the neuroendocrine protein 7B2 to generate an enzymatically active form. 7B2 null mice express no PC2 activity and release large quantities of uncleaved ACTH, resulting in a lethal(More)
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE Ligustilide (LIG), a main lipophilic component of Danggui (Chinese Angelica root, Radix Angelica sinensis) which is a popular used herb to treat menstrual disorders in traditional chinese medicine, has been reported to possess some neuroprotective effects on permanent focal ischemia and transient forebrain ischemia. AIM OF(More)
We recently found that the number of synapses in the spinal dorsal horn, as estimated by stereological techniques, increased by 86% after chronic constriction injury of sciatic nerve in rats. In this study, we aimed to reveal whether transection of sciatic nerve was also associated with a plasticity change in the number of synapses. 18 adult SD rats were(More)
This study aimed to determine whether neuropathic pain is associated with a plasticity change in the number of synapses in the spinal dorsal horn. 12 normal adult SD rats were randomly divided into two groups: 7 animals were subjected to unilateral loose ligation (to induce chronic constriction injury) of the sciatic nerve (CCI group) and 5 animals(More)