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We have produced a draft sequence of the rice genome for the most widely cultivated subspecies in China, Oryza sativa L. ssp. indica, by whole-genome shotgun sequencing. The genome was 466 megabases in size, with an estimated 46,022 to 55,615 genes. Functional coverage in the assembled sequences was 92.0%. About 42.2% of the genome was in exact(More)
We report improved whole-genome shotgun sequences for the genomes of indica and japonica rice, both with multimegabase contiguity, or almost 1,000-fold improvement over the drafts of 2002. Tested against a nonredundant collection of 19,079 full-length cDNAs, 97.7% of the genes are aligned, without fragmentation, to the mapped super-scaffolds of one or the(More)
Evidence from postmortem analysis implicates the involvement of microglia in the neurodegenerative process of several degenerative neurological diseases, including Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. It remains to be determined, however, whether microglial activation plays a role in the initiation stage of disease progression or occurs merely as a(More)
We report a draft sequence for the genome of the domesticated silkworm (Bombyx mori), covering 90.9% of all known silkworm genes. Our estimated gene count is 18,510, which exceeds the 13,379 genes reported for Drosophila melanogaster. Comparative analyses to fruitfly, mosquito, spider, and butterfly reveal both similarities and differences in gene content.
Increasing evidence has suggested that inflammation in the brain is closely associated with the pathogenesis of several degenerative neurologic disorders, including Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's diseases, multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and AIDS dementia. The hallmark of brain inflammation is the activation of glial cells, especially(More)
A massive degeneration of dopamine-containing neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) in the midbrain is characteristic of Parkinson's disease. Inflammation in the brain has long been speculated to play a role in the pathogenesis of this neurological disorder. Recently, we reported that treatment of primary rat mesencephalic mixed neuron-glia cultures with(More)
Comparative whole genome analysis of Mammalia can benefit from the addition of more species. The pig is an obvious choice due to its economic and medical importance as well as its evolutionary position in the artiodactyls. We have generated ~3.84 million shotgun sequences (0.66X coverage) from the pig genome. The data are hereby released (NCBI Trace(More)
Microglia, the resident immune cells in the brain, play a pivotal role in immune surveillance, host defense, and tissue repair in the CNS. In response to immunological challenges, microglia readily become activated as characterized by morphological changes, expression of surface antigens, and production of immune modulators that impact on neurons to induce(More)
We describe a genetic variation map for the chicken genome containing 2.8 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). This map is based on a comparison of the sequences of three domestic chicken breeds (a broiler, a layer and a Chinese silkie) with that of their wild ancestor, red jungle fowl. Subsequent experiments indicate that at least 90% of the(More)
An inflammatory response in the CNS mediated by activation of microglia is a key event in the early stages of the development of neurodegenerative diseases. Using mouse cortical mixed glia cultures, we have previously demonstrated that the bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide induces the activation of microglia and the production of proinflammatory(More)