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Accumulation of intracellular tau fibrils has been the focus of research on the mechanisms of neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and related tauopathies. Here, we have developed a class of tau ligands, phenyl/pyridinyl-butadienyl-benzothiazoles/benzothiazoliums (PBBs), for visualizing diverse tau inclusions in brains of living patients with AD or(More)
We provide the first evidence for the capability of a high-resolution positron emission tomographic (PET) imaging system in quantitatively mapping amyloid accumulation in living amyloid precursor protein transgenic (Tg) mice. After the intravenous administration of N-[11C]methyl-2-(4'-methylaminophenyl)-6-hydroxybenzothiazole (or [11C]PIB for "Pittsburgh(More)
We demonstrate the significance of peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR) imaging in living mouse models of Alzheimer's disease (AD) as biomarkers and functional signatures of glial activation. By radiochemically and immunohistochemically analyzing murine models of the two pathological hallmarks of AD, we found that AD-like Abeta deposition is concurrent(More)
Core pathologies of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are aggregated amyloid-β peptides (Aβ) and tau, and the latter is also characteristic of diverse neurodegenerative tauopathies. These amyloid lesions provoke microglial activation, and recent neuroimaging technologies have enabled visualization of this response in living brains using radioligands for the(More)
The mechanism by which amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) accumulation causes neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease (AD) remains unresolved. Given that Aβ perturbs calcium homeostasis in neurons, we investigated the possible involvement of calpain, a calcium-activated neutral protease. We first demonstrated close postsynaptic association of calpain activation with(More)
Elevated levels of peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR) in glia have been documented in diverse nervous system injuries, while the identity and spatiotemporal characteristics of the cells showing upregulation of PBR remain elusive. We examined the astrocytic and microglial expressions of PBR in rat brains during the duration of ethanol-induced neuronal(More)
Ipomoea stolonifera (I. stolonifera) has been used for the treatment of inflammatory diseases including rheumatism and rheumatoid arthritis in Chinese traditional medicine. However, the anti-inflammatory activity of I. stolonifera has not been elucidated. For this reason, the anti-inflammatory activity of n-butanol extract of I. stolonifera (BE-IS) was(More)
Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a chronic inflammatory disorder primarily affecting the sacroiliac joints and the spine. T-cell immunoglobulin- and mucin-domain-containing molecule 3 (TIM-3) has been established as a negative regulatory molecule that plays a critical role in controlling inflammation. Studies have shown that polymorphisms in TIM-3 gene may be(More)
The purpose of this study was to investigate the possible association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs1800629 (TNF-α -308) and rs361525 (TNF-α -238) of the tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α gene and susceptibility to osteoarthritis (OA) in the Han Chinese population. The TNF-α -308 and -238 genotypes were determined by TaqMan assay in 200 OA(More)
To study how the interaction between orbitofrontal (OFC) and rhinal (Rh) cortices influences the judgment of reward size, we reversibly disconnected these regions using hM4Di-DREADD (designer receptor exclusively activated by designer drug). Repeated inactivation reduced sensitivity to differences in reward size in two monkeys. These results suggest that(More)