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Pyramidal neurons in the deep layers of the cerebral cortex can be classified into two major classes: callosal projection neurons and long-range subcortical neurons. We and others have shown that a gene expressed specifically by subcortical projection neurons, Fezf2, is required for the formation of axonal projections to the spinal cord, tectum, and pons.(More)
During the development of the cerebral cortex, progenitor cells produce neurons that migrate to laminar positions appropriate for their birth dates, adopt specific neuronal identities, and form appropriate local and long-distance axonal connections. Here, we report that forebrain embryonic zinc-finger-like protein (Fezl), a putative zinc-finger(More)
The molecular mechanisms regulating fate divergence of closely related, but distinct, layer 6 corticothalamic and layer 5 subcerebral projection neurons are largely unknown. We present evidence for central transcriptional mechanisms that regulate fate specification of corticothalamic (layer 6) and subcerebral (layer 5) projection neurons. We found that TBR1(More)
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES The use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) for cell therapy relies on the capacity of these cells to home and engraft long-term into the appropriate target tissue(s). Homing of MSC to bone marrow (BM) post-transplantation can occur, but does so with only poor efficiency. This study was designed to evaluate the role of the SDF-1/CXCR4(More)
This paper introduces FAST, a novel two-phase sampling-based algorithm for discovering association rules in large databases. In Phase I a large initial sample of transactions is collected and used to quickly and accurately estimate the support of each individual item in the database. In Phase II these estimated supports are used to either trim "outlier"(More)
PURPOSE To quantify the extent and pattern of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) loss in the DBA2/NNia glaucomatous mouse strain as a function of age and compare it with ganglion cell loss in a nonglaucomatous strain. METHODS All the ganglion cells in retinas of DBA/2NNia and C57/BL6 mice of various ages (five eyes per age group in 3-month intervals from 3 to 18(More)
Here we review the mechanisms that determine projection neuron identity during cortical development. Pyramidal neurons in the mammalian cerebral cortex can be classified into two major classes: corticocortical projection neurons, which are concentrated in the upper layers of the cortex, and subcortical projection neurons, which are found in the deep layers.(More)
Polypharmacology provides a new way to address the issue of high attrition rates arising from lack of efficacy and toxicity. However, the development of polypharmacology is hampered by the incomplete SAR data and limited resources for validating target combinations. The PubChem bioassay collection, reporting the activity of compounds in multiple assays,(More)
The rapidly increasing amount of public data in chemistry and biology provides new opportunities for large-scale data mining for drug discovery. Systematic integration of these heterogeneous sets and provision of algorithms to data mine the integrated sets would permit investigation of complex mechanisms of action of drugs. In this work we integrated and(More)