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During the development of the cerebral cortex, progenitor cells produce neurons that migrate to laminar positions appropriate for their birth dates, adopt specific neuronal identities, and form appropriate local and long-distance axonal connections. Here, we report that forebrain embryonic zinc-finger-like protein (Fezl), a putative zinc-finger(More)
Pyramidal neurons in the deep layers of the cerebral cortex can be classified into two major classes: callosal projection neurons and long-range subcortical neurons. We and others have shown that a gene expressed specifically by subcortical projection neurons, Fezf2, is required for the formation of axonal projections to the spinal cord, tectum, and pons.(More)
The molecular mechanisms regulating fate divergence of closely related, but distinct, layer 6 corticothalamic and layer 5 subcerebral projection neurons are largely unknown. We present evidence for central transcriptional mechanisms that regulate fate specification of corticothalamic (layer 6) and subcerebral (layer 5) projection neurons. We found that TBR1(More)
The expanding number of members in the various human heat shock protein (HSP) families and the inconsistencies in their nomenclature have often led to confusion. Here, we propose new guidelines for the nomenclature of the human HSP families, HSPH (HSP110), HSPC (HSP90), HSPA (HSP70), DNAJ (HSP40), and HSPB (small HSP) as well as for the human chaperonin(More)
Autosomal dominant mutations of the RNA/DNA binding protein FUS are linked to familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (FALS); however, it is not clear how FUS mutations cause neurodegeneration. Using transgenic mice expressing a common FALS-associated FUS mutation (FUS-R521C mice), we found that mutant FUS proteins formed a stable complex with WT FUS(More)
Here we review the mechanisms that determine projection neuron identity during cortical development. Pyramidal neurons in the mammalian cerebral cortex can be classified into two major classes: corticocortical projection neurons, which are concentrated in the upper layers of the cortex, and subcortical projection neurons, which are found in the deep layers.(More)
PURPOSE To quantify the extent and pattern of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) loss in the DBA2/NNia glaucomatous mouse strain as a function of age and compare it with ganglion cell loss in a nonglaucomatous strain. METHODS All the ganglion cells in retinas of DBA/2NNia and C57/BL6 mice of various ages (five eyes per age group in 3-month intervals from 3 to 18(More)
Progenitor cells in the cerebral cortex sequentially generate distinct classes of projection neurons. Recent work suggests the cortex may contain intrinsically fate-restricted progenitors marked by expression of Cux2. However, the heterogeneity of the neocortical ventricular zone as well as the contribution of lineage-restricted progenitors to the overall(More)
This paper introduces FAST, a novel two-phase sampling-based algorithm for discovering association rules in large databases. In Phase I a large initial sample of transactions is collected and used to quickly and accurately estimate the support of each individual item in the database. In Phase II these estimated supports are used to either trim "outlier"(More)
An approximately 30-kD isoform of the actin-binding/ bundling protein espin has been discovered in the brush borders of absorptive epithelial cells in rat intestine and kidney. Small espin is identical in sequence to the COOH terminus of the larger ( approximately 110-kD) espin isoform identified in the actin bundles of Sertoli cell-spermatid junctional(More)