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Autophagy can be activated via MTORC1 down-regulation by amino acid deprivation and by certain chemicals such as rapamycin, torin, and niclosamide. Lysosome is the degrading machine for autophagy but has also been linked to MTORC1 activation through the Rag/RRAG GTPase pathway. This association raises the question of whether lysosome can be involved in the(More)
Calcium phosphate precipitates (CPPs) form complexes with DNA, which enter cells via endocytosis. Under this condition CPPs induce autophagy via the canonic autophagy machinery. Here we showed that CPP-induced autophagy was also dependent on endocytosis as the process was significantly inhibited by methyl-β-cyclodextrin and dynasore, which suppress(More)
Macroautophagy (autophagy) is an evolutionarily conserved mechanism. It is important for normal cellular function and also plays critical roles in the etiology and pathogenesis of a number of human diseases. In alcohol-induced liver disease, autophagy is a protective mechanism against the liver injury caused by alcohol. Autophagy is activated in acute(More)
Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is caused by chronic alcohol abuse and is a serious health concern worldwide. ALD is characterized by steatosis, inflammation, fibrosis, which can progrss to cirrhosis. It is generally considered that the pathogenesis of ALD is intimately related to oxidative stress, derived from reactive intermediates, including acetaldehyde,(More)
Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved lysosome-mediated cellular degradation program. Accumulating evidence shows that autophagy is important to the maintenance of liver homeostasis. Autophagy involves recycling of cellular nutrients recycling as well as quality control of subcellular organelles. Autophagy deficiency in the liver causes various liver(More)
Bid is a Bcl-2 family protein. In addition to its pro-apoptosis function, Bid can also promote cell proliferation, maintain S phase checkpoint, and facilitate inflammasome activation. Bid plays important roles in tissue injury and regeneration, hematopoietic homeostasis, and tumorigenesis. Bid participates in hepatic carcinogenesis but the mechanism is not(More)
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