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While studies have shown that estrogen affects hippocampal spine density and function, behavioral studies in humans and nonhuman primates have also implicated the prefrontal cortex in the effects of estrogen on cognition. However, the potential for similar estrogen-induced increases in spines and synapses in the prefrontal cortex has not been investigated(More)
We previously reported that long-term cyclic estrogen (E) treatment reverses age-related impairment of cognitive function mediated by the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) in ovariectomized (OVX) female rhesus monkeys, and that E induces a corresponding increase in spine density in layer III dlPFC pyramidal neurons. We have now investigated the effects(More)
Concern has been raised that environmental contaminants with estrogenic properties can alter normal sexual maturation. Monkeys, like humans, undergo a long and complex period of development during adolescence, which makes them important models for understanding exogenous estrogen effects during this period. This study examined the consequences of treatment(More)
Many xenobiotics have been associated with endocrine effects in a wide range of biological systems. These associations are usually between small nonsteroid molecules and steroid receptor signaling systems. In this report, triclocarban (TCC; 3,4,4'-trichlorocarbanilide), a common ingredient in personal care products that is used as an antimicrobial agent was(More)
It is well documented that estrogen increases dendritic spine density in CA1 pyramidal cells of young female rats. However, this effect is attenuated in aged rats. We report here a quantitative analysis of estrogen effects on hippocampal spine number as visualized with antispinophilin in young (6-8 years old) and aged (19-23 years old) female rhesus(More)
The present investigation provide evidences from a non-human primate model that naturally occurring menopause predicts a prominent signature of age-related cognitive decline. Young and aged rhesus monkeys were tested on a delayed response (DR) task known to the sensitive to aging, and reproductive status was evaluated according to menstrual cyclicity and(More)
BACKGROUND Concerns have been raised about the biological and toxicologic effects of the antimicrobials triclocarban (TCC) and triclosan (TCS) in personal care products. Few studies have evaluated their biological activities in mammalian cells to assess their potential for adverse effects. OBJECTIVES In this study, we assessed the activity of TCC, its(More)
The sensitivity and specificity of a urinary pregnanediol-3-glucuronide (PdG) ratio algorithm to identify anovulatory cycles was studied prospectively in two independent populations of women. Urinary hormone data from the first group was used to develop the algorithm, and data from the second group was used for its validation. PdG ratios were calculated by(More)
The animal subjects of this study consisted of seven male-female pairs, living an open-air, off-exhibit area of the San Diego Zoo. Daily urinary estrogen levels in each of five females were measured and daily behavioral observations of the seven pairs were made. Behavioral patterns aligned by objectively determined, discrete physiologic events were analyzed(More)
This 1989-1991 study in California and Utah used daily urinary metabolites of estrogen and progesterone and computer algorithms to assess ovulatory status and day of ovulation. The authors examined the associations of risk factors with menstrual cycle characteristics for 309 working women aged 20-44 years who collected a median of five cycles each of daily(More)