Bill D. Woodward

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Five interspecific competition experiments performed in artificial ponds under temporary pond-like conditions established that temporary and permanent pond tadpoles interact. Temporary pond species typically lowered survivorship and reduced progress towards metamorphosis of permanent pond tadpoles. These results suggest that competitive interactions may(More)
Enormous variability exists among published values for serum corticosterone concentration of mice. Exsanguination of mice is widely used and has been little-tested, but is a likely variable to affect corticosterone concentrations. Exsanguination may impose unrecognized and unnecessary distress on mice used in research. Male and female C57BL/6J mice that(More)
  • C L Ha, L E Paulino-Racine, B D Woodward
  • 1996
A direct comparison of systemic (spleen) and mucosal (intestine) antibody-producing systems was made in weanling male C57BL/6J mice subjected to wasting protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) by means of a low-protein protocol known to duplicate immunological and physiological features of human malnutrition. ELISA revealed low concentrations of biliary and gut(More)
Individual male and female Bufo woodhousei spent only two or three nights of the several week breeding season in the pond. In spite of the continual arriving and leaving of individuals the operational sex ratio (the number of females available to mate/number of males attempting to mate) varied little, either temporally across the breeding season or(More)
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