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The problems of designing large software systems were studied through interviewing personnel from 17 large projects. A layered behavioral model is used to analyze how three of these problems—the thin spread of application domain knowledge, fluctuating and conflicting requirements, and communication bottlenecks and breakdowns—affected software… (More)
The capability maturity model (CMM), developed to present sets of recommended practices in a number of key process areas that have been shown to enhance software-development and maintenance capability, is discussed. The CMM was designed to help developers select process-improvement strategies by determining their current process maturity and identifying the… (More)
raditionally, the modeling of information systems has focused on analyzing data flows and transformations. This modeling accounted only for the organization's data and that portion of its processes that interacted with data. Newer uses of information technology extend computer use beyond transaction processing into communication and coordination.… (More)
ore than half the cost of the development of complex computer-based information systems (IS) is attributable to decisions made in the upstream port ion of the software d e v e l o p m e n t process; namely , requirements specification and design . There is growing recognition that research on how teams actually go about making requirement determinations… (More)
The iedas and findigs in tiis document shouid not be construed as an official DoD position. It is published in the interest of scientific and technical information exchange. 'L-z , ay it-sademarks in this document is not intended in any way to infringe on the rights of the trademark holder.
The ideas and findings in this report should not be construed as an official DoD position. It is published in the interest of scientific and technical information exchange. Permission to reproduce this document and to prepare derivative works from this document for internal use is granted, provided the copyright and " No Warranty " statements are included… (More)
Since the 1950's, psychologists have studied the behavioral aspects of software engineering. However, the results of their research have never been organized into a subfield of either software engineering or psychology. This failure results from the difficulty of integrating theory and data from the mixture of paradigms borrowed from psychology. This paper… (More)
Most software process models are based on the management tracking and control of a project. The popular alternatives to these models such as rapid prototyping and program transformation are built around specific technologies, many of which are still in their adolescence. Neither of these approaches describe the actual processes that occur during the… (More)
This article characterizes technical debt across 700 business applications, comprising 357 MLOC. These applications were analyzed against more than 1,200 rules of good architectural and coding practice. The authors present a formula with adjustable parameters for estimating the principal of technical debt from structural quality data.
Three software complexity measures (Halstead's E, McCabe's u(G), and the length as measured by number of statements) were compared to programmer performance on two software maintenance tasks. In an experiment on understanding, length and u(G) correlated with the percent of statements correctly recalled. In an experiment on modification, most significant… (More)