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The problems of designing large software systems were studied through interviewing personnel from 17 large projects. A layered behavioral model is used to analyze how three of these problems—the thin spread of application domain knowledge, fluctuating and conflicting requirements, and communication bottlenecks and breakdowns—affected software(More)
• Business process reengineering-the redesign of an organization's business processes to make them more efficient. • Coordination technology-an aid to managing dependencies among the agents within a business process, and provides automated support for the most routinized component processes. * Process-driven software development environments-an automated(More)
ore than half the cost of the development of complex computer-based information systems (IS) is attributable to decisions made in the upstream portion of the software development process; namely, requirements specification and design [20]. There is growing recognition that research on how teams actually go about making requirement deter-minations and design(More)
Software development processes are usually modeled by manifestations of the software artifact at given stages in its evolution and the nature of the transformations being applied to it during these stages. Thus, the software process is purported to begin with a stage called something like requirements development, or in some cases with the even the earlier(More)
Fourteen factors that influence the efficiency of programming projects were identified in a corporate-wide study of 44 ITT programming projects in nine countries. Productivity factors were classified according to project management's ability to control them. Product-related factors are not generally under the control of project management. They describe(More)