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Unilateral or bilateral pathology of the osseous components of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) can result in pronounced facial asymmetry because of dissimilar size and shape of the right and left sides of the mandible. To date, it is unknown whether abnormalities of the soft tissues of the TMJ are associated with greater than normal craniofacial(More)
The goal of this study was to determine the ability of various horizontal and vertical reference lines to provide measurements of dentofacial asymmetries from posteroanterior (PA) cephalograms. Ten horizontal and 15 vertical reference lines, including best-fit lines and lines most commonly used in PA analysis, were tested. A model of a dry skull was devised(More)
To assess the magnitude of cephalometric landmarks identification error, we performed a Meta analysis on six pertinent studies. We outline the procedures used to compare and integrate the findings of these-studies. The results are a measure of systematic and random errors involved when locating landmarks on lateral head films. They are presented as standard(More)
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