Bilal Zulfiqar

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Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) is an immuno-regulatory enzyme. It plays a key role in various malignancies, infection and autoimmune diseases. IDO induces immunosup-pression through the depletion of tryptophan and its downstream metabolites. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) has infected more than 12 million individuals in Pakistan. The aim of the present study(More)
Climate change is one of the most complex challenges that pose serious threats to livelihoods of poor people who rely heavily on agriculture and livestock particularly in climate-sensitive developing countries of the world. The negative effects of water scarcity, due to climate change, are not limited to productivity food crops but have far-reaching(More)
Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis mimicking inflammatory breast carcinoma: What are the odds? Background While inflammatory breast cancer is rare, idiopathic granulo-matous mastitis is more uncommon. We hereby present a very rare case of granulomatous mastitis which thought to be inflammatory breast cancer. Case A 27-year-old Hispanic woman presented with a(More)
Nanomedicine application in cancer immunotherapy is currently one of the most challenging areas in cancer therapeutic intervention. Innovative solutions have been provided by nanotechnology to deliver cytotoxic agents to the cancer cells partially affecting the healthy cells of the body during the process. Nanoparticle-based drug delivery is an emerging(More)
Tumor cells induce an immunosuppressive microenvironment which leads towards tumor immune escape. Understanding the intricacy of immunomodulation by tumor cells is essential for immunotherapy. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) is an immunosuppressive enzyme which mediates tumor immune escape in various cancers including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). IDO(More)
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