Bilal A. Omar

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Protein kinase B (PKB) is known to mediate a number of biological responses to insulin and growth factors, its role in glucose uptake being one of the most extensively studied. In this work, we have employed a recently described allosteric inhibitor of PKB, Akti, to clarify the role of PKB in lipid metabolism in adipocytes-a subject that has received less(More)
AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an important regulator of cellular energy status. In adipocytes, stimuli that increase intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP) have also been shown to increase the activity of AMPK. The precise molecular mechanisms responsible for cAMP-induced AMPK activation are not clear. Phosphodiesterase 3B (PDE3B) is a critical regulator(More)
Low-grade inflammation in obesity is associated with accumulation of the macrophage-derived cytokine osteopontin (OPN) in adipose tissue and induction of local as well as systemic insulin resistance. Since glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) is a strong stimulator of adipogenesis and may play a role in the development of obesity, we explored(More)
We report the production and metabolic phenotype of a mouse line in which the Fmo5 gene is disrupted. In comparison with wild-type (WT) mice, Fmo5(-/-) mice exhibit a lean phenotype, which is age-related, becoming apparent after 20 weeks of age. Despite greater food intake, Fmo5(-/-) mice weigh less, store less fat in white adipose tissue (WAT), have lower(More)
Inhibition of the enzyme dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4), which cleaves and inactivates glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), is a glucose-lowering strategy in type 2 diabetes. Since DPP-4 is a ubiquitously distributed enzyme, we examined whether it is expressed in islets and whether an islet effect to inhibit DPP-4 may result in stimulated insulin secretion. We(More)
Studies have shown that dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4) inhibitors stimulate insulin secretion and increase beta cell mass in rodents. However, in these models hyperglycaemia has been induced early on in life and the treatment periods have been short. To explore the long-term effects of DPP4 inhibition on insulin secretion and beta cell mass, we have(More)
OBJECTIVES Many drugs are the subject of multipathway oxidative metabolism catalyzed by one or more cytochromes P450 or flavin-containing monooxygenases (FMOs). This complicates assessment of the role of individual enzymes in metabolizing the drug and, hence, in understanding its pharmacogenetics. To define the role of FMOs in drug metabolism, we produced(More)
The development of new therapies for the treatment of type 2 diabetes requires robust, reproducible and well validated in vivo experimental systems. Mice provide the most ideal animal model for studies of potential therapies. Unlike larger animals, mice have a short gestational period, are genetically similar, often give birth to many offspring at once and(More)
CONTEXT Postprandial glucose homeostasis is regulated through the secretion of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) through the stimulation of insulin secretion and inhibition of glucagon secretion. However, how these processes dynamically adapt to demands created by caloric challenges achieved during daily life is not known. OBJECTIVE The objective of the(More)
Mice genetically deficient in the glucagon receptor (Gcgr(-/-)) show improved glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, and α-cell hyperplasia. In addition, Gcgr(-/-) mice do not develop diabetes after chemical destruction of β-cells. Since fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) has insulin-independent glucose-lowering properties, we investigated whether FGF21(More)