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Tuberculosis caused 20% of all human deaths in the Western world between the seventeenth and nineteenth centuries and remains a cause of high mortality in developing countries. In analogy to other crowd diseases, the origin of human tuberculosis has been associated with the Neolithic Demographic Transition, but recent studies point to a much earlier origin.(More)
Epidemics of drug-resistant bacteria emerge worldwide, even as resistant strains frequently have reduced fitness compared to their drug-susceptible counterparts. Data from model systems suggest that the fitness cost of antimicrobial resistance can be reduced by compensatory mutations; however, there is limited evidence that compensatory evolution has any(More)
BACKGROUND Functional deficiency of mannose-binding lectin (MBL) may contribute to the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. We hypothesized that specific MBL2 gene polymorphisms and circulating MBL protein levels are associated with clinically relevant outcomes in the Predicting Outcome using systemic Markers In Severe Exacerbations of(More)
There is increasing evidence that strain variation in Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) might influence the outcome of tuberculosis infection and disease. To assess genotype-phenotype associations, phylogenetically robust molecular markers and appropriate genotyping tools are required. Most current genotyping methods for MTBC are based on mobile or(More)
Generalist and specialist species differ in the breadth of their ecological niches. Little is known about the niche width of obligate human pathogens. Here we analyzed a global collection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis lineage 4 clinical isolates, the most geographically widespread cause of human tuberculosis. We show that lineage 4 comprises globally(More)
BACKGROUND Mycobacterium tuberculosis has a global population structure consisting of six main phylogenetic lineages associated with specific geographic regions and human populations. One particular M. tuberculosis genotype known as "Beijing" has repeatedly been associated with drug resistance and has been emerging in some parts of the world. "Beijing"(More)
This study was done to compare the efficacy of closed Vs open haemorrhoidectomy. The study design was unblinded randomised control trial at Dhulikhel Hospital, Kathmandu University Hospital. Total number of patients was 56 all with 3rd and 4th degree haemorrhoids. Post operative pain was taken as main outcome measures. Operation time varied from 200 seconds(More)
BACKGROUND Tuberculosis (TB) is a major public health problem in Nepal. Strain variation in Mycobacterium tuberculosis may influence the outcome of TB infection and disease. To date, the phylogenetic diversity of M. tuberculosis in Nepal is unknown. METHODS AND FINDINGS We analyzed 261 M. tuberculosis isolates recovered from pulmonary TB patients(More)
Datasets used in this study. To identify the most likely mutations involved in the compensatory evolution of fitness cost associated with rifampicin resistance, we analyzed different datasets. These datasets are described in the following sections and allowed us to address different aspects of the evolution of these compensatory mutations and control for(More)
BACKGROUND The diagnosis of obstructive jaundice relies on proper history taking, clinical examination, laboratory investigations and different non invasive imaging modalities like Ultrasonography (USG), Cholangio Computed Tomography (CCT), Magnetic resonance Imaging (MRI) with Magnetic Resonance Cholangio Pancreatography (MRCP) and invasive modalities like(More)