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This review encompasses the most important advances in liver functions and hepatotoxicity and analyzes which mechanisms can be studied in vitro. In a complex architecture of nested, zonated lobules, the liver consists of approximately 80 % hepatocytes and 20 % non-parenchymal cells, the latter being involved in a secondary phase that may dramatically(More)
Two modified urea products (urea supergranules [USG] and sulfur-coated urea [SCU]) were compared with conventional urea and ammonium sulfate as sources of nitrogen (N), applied at 58 kg N ha−1 and 116 kg N ha−1, for lowland rice grown in an alkaline soil of low organic matter and light texture (Typic Ustipsamment) having a water percolation rate of 109 mm(More)
Endosomal escape is a major bottleneck for efficient non-viral gene delivery. This paper presents the development of two novel non-viral vectors by cross-linking glycerol molecules with low molecular weight polyethylenimine (PEI). The vectors, namely, HG-PEI (45 mol% glycerol content) and LG-PEI (9 mol% glycerol content) have apparently similar DNA binding,(More)
Receptor activator of nuclear factor (NF)-κB ligand (RANKL), a master cytokine that drives osteoclast differentiation, activation and survival, exists in both transmembrane and extracellular forms. To date, studies on physiological role of RANKL have been mainly carried out with extracellular RANKL probably due to difficulties in achieving high level(More)
The biochemical mode-of-action (MOA) for herbicides and other bioactive compounds can be rapidly and simultaneously classified by automated pattern recognition of the metabonome that is embodied in the 1H NMR spectrum of a crude plant extract. The ca. 300 herbicides that are used in agriculture today affect less than 30 different biochemical pathways. In(More)
Doxorubicin (DXR), produced by Streptomyces peucetius ATCC 27952, exhibits potent antitumor activity against various cancer cell lines. Considerable time has lapsed since the biosynthesis of DXR and its overproduction was first summarized. Based on biosynthetic studies and product analysis, various factors affecting its production by the parental strain, S.(More)
A successful delivery of antigen through oral route requires to overcome several barriers, such as enzymatic barrier of gastrointestinal tract and epithelial barrier that constitutes of microfold cells (M cells) for antigen uptake. Although each barrier represents a critical step in determining the final efficiency of antigen delivery, the transcytosis of(More)
Non-viral gene delivery systems are one of the most potential alternatives to viral vectors because of their less immunogenicity, less toxicity and easy productivity in spite of their low capacity of gene transfection using DNA or silencing using siRNA compared to that of viral vectors. Among non-viral systems, the polycationic derivatives are the most(More)
AIM To compare the antimicrobial efficacy of calcium hydroxide (CH), 2% chlorhexidine gel (CHX) and a combination of both, on obligate anaerobes, facultative anaerobes and Candida spp . MATERIALS AND METHODS 90 single rooted permanent teeth were included in the study. After complete disinfection and access opening, the first microbiological pre-treatment(More)