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Because of the crucial role coarse roots (>2 mm diameter) play in plant functions and terrestrial ecosystems, detecting and quantifying the size, architecture, and biomass of coarse roots are important. Traditional excavation methods are labor intensive and destructive, with limited quantification and repeatability of measurements over time. As a(More)
The GPR indices used for predicting root biomass are measures of root radar reflectance. However, root radar reflectance is highly correlated with root water content. The objectives of this study are to assess the impact of root water content on GPR-based root biomass estimation and to develop more reliable approaches to quantify root biomass using GPR.(More)
It remains unclear how the limiting factors (e.g., root size, root water content, spacing between roots, and soil water content) affect root investigation using ground penetrating radar (GPR). The objective of this study is to develop a theoretical forward simulation protocol of synthesizing root’s GPR signal and test the feasibility of our proposed(More)
Copula has become a popular tool in multivariate modeling widely applied in lots of fields, but less used in temporal data. The analysis of the extreme temperature is an important part of the study in climate change, and the data of extreme temperature is one of the temporal data. So in this study, copula is used to calculate the joint return period of(More)
A jointing distribution data was mined by copula algorithm for disaster risk control in this paper. We illustrate all these concepts with an example of severe dust storm and consider samples of simultaneous observations in most important two numerical hazard variables of maximum wind speed and duration. The analysis emphasizes how inappropriate in the(More)
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