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Octopine synthase (ocs) elements are a group of promoter elements that have been exploited by plant pathogens to express genes in plants. ocs elements are components of the promoters of certain plant glutathione S-transferase genes and may function as oxidative stress response elements. Genes for ocs element binding factors (OBFs), which belong to a(More)
OBJECTIVES Tumor-associated macrophages that generally exhibit an alternatively activated (M2) phenotype have been linked to tumor progression and metastasis. However, the role of M2-polarized macrophages in the growth and metastasis of lung adenocarcinoma remains enigmatic. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of M2 macrophages on the(More)
OBJECTIVES Tumor-associated macrophages have been implicated in promoting tumor growth, progression and metastasis. However, the activated phenotype (M1 or M2) of tumor-associated macrophages remains unknown in solid tumors. Therefore, this study examined the density and prognostic significance of M2-polarized tumor-associated macrophages in lung(More)
BACKGROUND Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) is an important member of the matrix metalloproteinase family and is considered to be involved in the invasion and metastasis of cancer cells. This study analyzed the expression of MMP-9 in colon cancer patients and the relationship between this expression and clinicopathological features and survival. METHODS(More)
A recent study showed that miR-26a is downregulated in hepatocellular carcinoma tissues and that this downregulation is an independent predictor of survival. Interestingly, the same study also reported that miR-26a downregulation causes a concomitant elevation of IL-6 expression. Because miR-26a expression was found to be transcriptionally downregulated by(More)
Resistance to anoikis, the subtype of apoptosis induced by lack of matrix adhesion, contributes to malignant transformation and development of metastasis. MicroRNAs play key regulatory roles in tumorigenesis and metastasis. In this study, we described that miR-26a, which is usually downregulated in tumor cells, is involved in the acquisition of(More)
Resistance has been reported to human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-targeted therapy with the tyrosine kinase inhibitor lapatinib and the antibody trastuzumab in metastatic gastric cancer. An alternative or complement might be to target the extracellular domain of HER2 with therapy-effective radionuclides. The fraction of patients with HER2(More)
Despite several decades of intensive effort to improve the imaging techniques for lung cancer diagnosis and treatment, primary lung cancer is still the number one cause of cancer death in the United States and worldwide. The major causes of this high mortality rate are distant metastasis evident at diagnosis and ineffective treatment for locally advanced(More)
BACKGROUND Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) has been shown to be a prognostic indicator in several types of cancer. We aimed to investigate the association between NLR and survival in surgery-treated non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. STUDY DESIGN This large retrospective study included 1,245 patients who underwent initial surgery for stage(More)
Invariant Natural Killer T (iNKT) cells are a unique subset of T lymphocytes that have been implicated in both promoting and suppressing a multitude of immune responses. In mice, iNKT cells express T cell antigen receptors (TCRs) comprising a unique TCRα rearrangement between the Trav11 and Traj18 gene segments. When paired with certain Trbv TCRβ chains,(More)