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Flavivirus is a genus of the family Flaviviridae. It includes West Nile virus (WNV), dengue virus (DENV), yellow fever virus (YFV), Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), and several other viruses which lead to extensive morbidity and mortality in humans. To establish infection and replication in the hosts, flaviviruses(More)
Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) can target CNS and cause neuroinflammation that is characterized by profound neuronal damage and concomitant microgliosis/astrogliosis. Although microRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as a major regulatory network with profound effects on inflammatory response, it is less clear how they regulate JEV-induced inflammation. In this(More)
Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) infection can cause central nervous system disease with irreversible neurological damage in humans and animals. Evidence suggests that overactivation of microglia leads to greatly increased neuronal damage during JEV infection. However, the mechanism by which JEV induces the activation of microglia remains unclear.(More)
Usutu virus (USUV) is an African mosquito-borne flavivirus belonging to the Japanese encephalitis virus serocomplex. USUV is closely related to Murray Valley encephalitis virus, Japanese encephalitis virus, and West Nile virus. USUV was discovered in South Africa in 1959. In Europe, the first true demonstration of circulation of USUV was reported in Austria(More)
UNLABELLED Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) can invade the central nervous system and consequently induce neuroinflammation, which is characterized by profound neuronal cell damage accompanied by astrogliosis and microgliosis. Albeit microRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as major regulatory noncoding RNAs with profound effects on inflammatory response, it is(More)
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that play important roles in regulating the host immune response. Here we found that miR-22 is induced in glial cells upon stimulation with poly(I:C). Overexpression of miR-22 in the cultured cells resulted in decreased activity of interferon regulatory factor-3 and nuclear factor-kappa B, which in turn led to(More)
BACKGROUND Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a neurotropic flavivirus that causes Japanese encephalitis (JE), which leads to high fatality rates in human. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) is a key factor that mediates immunopathology in the central nervous system (CNS) during JE. Etanercept is a safe anti-TNF-α drug that has been commonly used in the(More)
West Nile Virus (WNV) is an emerging arthropod-born flavivirus with increasing distribution worldwide that is responsible for a large proportion of viral encephalitis in humans and horses. Given that there are no effective antiviral drugs available for treatment of the disease, efforts have been directed to develop vaccines to prevent WNV infection.(More)
Outbreaks of spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV) in several carp species and other cultivated fish can cause significant mortality and jeopardize the billion-dollar worldwide fish industry. Spring viraemia of carp virus, also known as Rhabdovirus carpio, is a bullet-shaped RNA virus that enters and amplifies in gill epithelium and later spreads to internal(More)
West Nile virus (WNV) can cause neuro-invasive and febrile illness that may be fatal to humans. The production of inflammatory cytokines is key to mediating WNV-induced immunopathology in the central nervous system. Elucidating the host factors utilized by WNV for productive infection would provide valuable insights into the evasion strategies used by this(More)