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BACKGROUND Patent foramen ovale (PFO) is found in up to 50% of patients less than 55 years of age who have had a stroke. Therapeutic options include no therapy, antiplatelet therapy, warfarin and surgical closure of the PFO. OBJECTIVES To determine the relative and attributable risks of PFO for recurrent cerebral ischemic events in young patients with(More)
Although electrocardiographic (ECG) abnormalities and autopsy evidence of myocardial necrosis are associated with subarachnoid hemorrhage, their relation to in vivo measures of left ventricular function in this condition has not been established. Thirteen patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage and no prior history of heart disease were studied by(More)
Several criteria have been proposed for the grading of severe aortic and mitral regurgitation by colour flow imaging. To evaluate the sensitivity of these criteria, colour flow imaging was performed in 21 patients with isolated severe mitral regurgitation and 11 patients with isolated severe aortic regurgitation prior to clinically indicated valvular(More)
BACKGROUND Studies of career and parenting satisfaction have focused separately on medical students, residents and practising physicians. The objective of this study was to compare satisfaction across a spectrum of stages of medical career. METHODS A survey of incoming medical students, current medical students, residents and physician teachers at the(More)
AIMS To determine what proportion of patients with heart failure are eligible for cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). METHODS AND RESULTS Eligibility criteria from the trials establishing the efficacy of CRT were applied to two prospective cohorts: the first enrolled patients with newly diagnosed heart failure discharged from 103 hospitals between(More)
OBJECTIVES This study examined the effect of aspirin on the risk of embolic events in infective endocarditis (IE). BACKGROUND Embolism is a major complication of IE, and studies in animal models have shown that platelet inhibition with aspirin can lead to more rapid vegetation resolution and a lower rate of embolic events. METHODS We conducted a(More)
To compare the diagnostic yields of transesophageal and transthoracic echocardiography in the detection of potential cardiac sources of embolism, 63 patients (mean +/- SD age 63 +/- 15 [range 18-87] years) with transient ischemic attacks or stroke underwent both procedures. Transthoracic echocardiography revealed a potential cardiac source of embolism in(More)
Inspiratory muscle weakness has been demonstrated in ambulatory, stable chronic heart failure (CHF) and may contribute to dyspnea during daily living. However, the mechanisms underlying this weakness are unknown. Malnutrition and electrolyte depletion are recognized complications of CHF that may impair skeletal muscle function, and limb muscle weakness and(More)
OBJECTIVES We sought to evaluate the common utilization of beta-blockers and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors or receptor blockers (RBs) in congestive heart failure (CHF). BACKGROUND We assessed the association between prescriptions of beta-blockers and ACE inhibitors or RBs within three months after hospitalization and mortality for newly(More)