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Interleukin 1 (IL-1) is an important mediator of innate immunity but can also promote inflammatory tissue damage. During chronic infections such as tuberculosis, the beneficial antimicrobial role of IL-1 must be balanced with the need to prevent immunopathology. By exogenously controlling the replication of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in vivo, we obviated(More)
The functions of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) 11-13 in central nervous system (CNS) infections are currently unknown. Using a murine model of neurocysticercosis, we investigated the expression and distribution of TLRs 11-13 by using both gene specific real-time PCR analysis and in situ immunofluorescence microscopy in both control and neurocysticercosis(More)
Parasite infections in the central nervous system (CNS) are a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, second only to HIV infection. Finding appropriate therapeutic measures to control CNS parasite infections requires an understanding of the tissue-specific host response. CNS parasitic diseases are invariably associated with persistent T-helper 1(More)
Macrophages can potentially kill all mycobacteria by poorly understood mechanisms. In this study, we explore the role of NF-kappaB in the innate immune response of macrophages against Mycobacterium smegmatis, a nonpathogenic mycobacterium efficiently killed by macrophages, and Mycobacterium avium which survives within macrophages. We show that infection of(More)
The bacterial or host determinants of lethality associated with respiratory Francisella infections are currently unknown. No exo- or endotoxins that contribute to the severity of this disease have been identified. However, a deregulated host immune response upon infection is characterized by an initial 36- to 48-h delay followed by a rapid and excessive(More)
Francisella tularensis is the causative agent of zoonotic tularemia, a severe pneumonia in humans, and Francisella novicida causes a similarly severe tularemia in mice upon inhalation. The correlates of protective immunity, as well as the virulence mechanisms of this deadly pathogen, are not well understood. In the present study, we compared the host immune(More)
As part of a cloning strategy to identify genes involved in early mouse liver development we have isolated Praja1, a gene with similar sequences to the Drosophila melanogaster gene goliath (gl) which is involved in the fate of mesodermal cells ultimately forming gut musculatures, fat body, and the heart. Praja1 is a 2.1 kb gene encoding a putative 396 amino(More)
Eggplant (Solanum melongena) is a very rich source of polyphenol oxidase (PPO), which negatively affects its quality upon cutting and postharvest processing due to enzymatic browning. PPO inhibitors, from natural or synthetic sources, are used to tackle this problem. One isoform of PPO was 259-fold purified using standard chromatographic procedures. The PPO(More)
Interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) represents one of the most important mediators of inflammation and host responses to infection. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the causative agent of human tuberculosis, induces IL-1beta secretion at the site of infection, but the underlying mechanism(s) are poorly understood. In this work we show that Mtb infection of(More)
Macrophages have been shown to kill Mycobacterium tuberculosis through the action of the antimicrobial peptide cathelicidin (CAMP), whose expression was shown to be induced by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D3). Here, we investigated in detail the antimycobacterial effect of murine and human cathelicidin against Mycobacterium smegmatis and M. bovis BCG(More)