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The functions of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) 11-13 in central nervous system (CNS) infections are currently unknown. Using a murine model of neurocysticercosis, we investigated the expression and distribution of TLRs 11-13 by using both gene specific real-time PCR analysis and in situ immunofluorescence microscopy in both control and neurocysticercosis(More)
As part of a cloning strategy to identify genes involved in early mouse liver development we have isolated Praja1, a gene with similar sequences to the Drosophila melanogaster gene goliath (gl) which is involved in the fate of mesodermal cells ultimately forming gut musculatures, fat body, and the heart. Praja1 is a 2.1 kb gene encoding a putative 396 amino(More)
Disruption of the adaptor protein ELF, a beta-spectrin, leads to disruption of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) signaling by Smad proteins in mice. Elf-/- mice exhibit a phenotype similar to smad2+/-/smad3+/- mutant mice of midgestational death due to gastrointestinal, liver, neural, and heart defects. We show that TGF-beta triggers(More)
Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) signaling has diverse and complex roles in various biological phenomena such as cell growth, differentiation, embryogenesis and morphogenesis. ES cells provide an essential model for understanding the role of TGF-β signaling in lineage specification and differentiation. Recent studies have suggested significant role(More)
Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) and TGF-beta-related proteins, such as the bone morphogenetic proteins, have emerged as key regulators of stem cell renewal and differentiation. These proteins have disparate roles in regulating the biology of embryonic stem cells and tumor suppression, and they help define the selection of cell fate and the(More)
In this study, using a murine model for neurocysticercosis, macrophage phenotypes and their functions were examined. Mesocestoides corti infection in the central nervous system (CNS) induced expression of markers associated with alternatively activated macrophages (AAMs) and a scarcity of iNOS, a classically activated macrophage marker. The infection in(More)
The bacterial or host determinants of lethality associated with respiratory Francisella infections are currently unknown. No exo- or endotoxins that contribute to the severity of this disease have been identified. However, a deregulated host immune response upon infection is characterized by an initial 36- to 48-h delay followed by a rapid and excessive(More)
We have shown that loss of ELF, a stem cell adaptor protein, disrupts TGF-b signaling through Smad3 and Smad4 localization. Notably elf +/À /smad4 +/À mice develop gastric cancer presenting this as an important model for analyzing molecular event in gastric car-cinogenesis. To gain further insight into the functional role of ELF in gastric cancer(More)
TGF-beta/Smads regulate a wide variety of biological responses through transcriptional regulation of target genes. ELF, a beta-spectrin, plays a key role in the transmission of TGF-beta-mediated transcriptional response through Smads. ELF was originally identified as a key protein involved in endodermal stem/progenitor cells committed to foregut lineage.(More)