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Information-processing speed (IPS) slowing is a primary cognitive deficit in multiple sclerosis (MS). Basal ganglia, thalamus and neocortex are thought to have a key role for efficient information-processing, yet the specific relative contribution of these structures for MS-related IPS impairment is poorly understood. To determine if basal ganglia and(More)
BACKGROUND Cognition and magnetic resonance imaging correlations are well established in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), but it is unclear whether lesion burden or atrophy accounts for most of the predictive variance. These indices have been directly compared in only a few studies. No such study included measurement of the third ventricle, which was(More)
OBJECTIVES Recent studies have indicated that brain atrophy is more closely associated with cognitive impairment in multiple sclerosis (MS) than are conventional MRI lesion measures. Enlargement of the third ventricle shows a particularly strong correlation with cognitive impairment, suggesting clinical relevance of damage to surrounding structures, such as(More)
BACKGROUND Cognitive dysfunction is common in multiple sclerosis (MS). Correlations are reported between atrophy and neuropsychological test results. OBJECTIVE To determine if neocortical volume would supplant or supplement third ventricular width and other magnetic resonance imaging measures when predicting neuropsychological impairment. DESIGN(More)
The MS Functional Composite (MSFC) is a continuous scale of neurological disability for patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Cognition is represented by the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT), although the Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT) has been proposed as a promising alternative. MSFC scores were calculated using either the PASAT or the(More)
BACKGROUND Interferon beta is used to modify the course of relapsing multiple sclerosis. Despite interferon beta therapy, many patients have relapses. Natalizumab, an alpha4 integrin antagonist, appeared to be safe and effective alone and when added to interferon beta-1a in preliminary studies. METHODS We randomly assigned 1171 patients who, despite(More)
CONTEXT Osteoporosis and the increased fracture risk associated with osteoporosis become apparent in men approximately 10 years later than women. However, in recent studies, approximately 20% of healthy men in the age range 55-64 years were found to be osteopenic. Emerging data suggest a significantly increased prevalence of osteoporosis in men and women(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the incidence and clinical effects of antibodies that develop during treatment with natalizumab. METHODS In two randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies (natalizumab safety and efficacy in relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis [MS, AFFIRM] and safety and efficacy of natalizumab in combination with interferon beta-1a(More)
BACKGROUND The breakdown of the blood-brain-barrier vascular endothelium is critical for entry of immune cells into the MS brain. Vascular co-morbidities are associated with increased risk of progression. Dyslipidemia, elevated LDL and reduced HDL may increase progression by activating inflammatory processes at the vascular endothelium. OBJECTIVE To(More)
INTRODUCTION The Beck Depression Inventory-Fast Screen (BDI-FS) is a brief self-report inventory designed to evaluate depression in patients with medical illness. As depressive disorder is especially prominent in multiple sclerosis (MS), a cost-effective procedure for identifying depressive disorder in MS is sorely needed. The BDI-FS may be useful in this(More)