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BACKGROUND Cognitive dysfunction is common in multiple sclerosis (MS). Correlations are reported between atrophy and neuropsychological test results. OBJECTIVE To determine if neocortical volume would supplant or supplement third ventricular width and other magnetic resonance imaging measures when predicting neuropsychological impairment. DESIGN(More)
The MS Functional Composite (MSFC) is a continuous scale of neurological disability for patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Cognition is represented by the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT), although the Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT) has been proposed as a promising alternative. MSFC scores were calculated using either the PASAT or the(More)
Information-processing speed (IPS) slowing is a primary cognitive deficit in multiple sclerosis (MS). Basal ganglia, thalamus and neocortex are thought to have a key role for efficient information-processing, yet the specific relative contribution of these structures for MS-related IPS impairment is poorly understood. To determine if basal ganglia and(More)
BACKGROUND Interferon beta is used to modify the course of relapsing multiple sclerosis. Despite interferon beta therapy, many patients have relapses. Natalizumab, an alpha4 integrin antagonist, appeared to be safe and effective alone and when added to interferon beta-1a in preliminary studies. METHODS We randomly assigned 1171 patients who, despite(More)
BACKGROUND Cognition and magnetic resonance imaging correlations are well established in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), but it is unclear whether lesion burden or atrophy accounts for most of the predictive variance. These indices have been directly compared in only a few studies. No such study included measurement of the third ventricle, which was(More)
OBJECTIVES Recent studies have indicated that brain atrophy is more closely associated with cognitive impairment in multiple sclerosis (MS) than are conventional MRI lesion measures. Enlargement of the third ventricle shows a particularly strong correlation with cognitive impairment, suggesting clinical relevance of damage to surrounding structures, such as(More)
PURPOSE To investigate the differences in the extracranial venous system in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and healthy control (HC) subjects by using magnetic resonance (MR) venography. MATERIALS AND METHODS This HIPAA-compliant, prospective study was approved by the local institutional review board, and all participants gave informed consent.(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the incidence and clinical effects of antibodies that develop during treatment with natalizumab. METHODS In two randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies (natalizumab safety and efficacy in relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis [MS, AFFIRM] and safety and efficacy of natalizumab in combination with interferon beta-1a(More)
CONTEXT Osteoporosis and the increased fracture risk associated with osteoporosis become apparent in men approximately 10 years later than women. However, in recent studies, approximately 20% of healthy men in the age range 55-64 years were found to be osteopenic. Emerging data suggest a significantly increased prevalence of osteoporosis in men and women(More)
Multiple sclerosis is characterized by the dual pathological processes of inflammation and neurodegeneration. Conventional MRI techniques are considered the best tools for assessing and monitoring lesion burden and inflammation but are limited in their ability to assess axonal loss. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a simple high-resolution technique(More)