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Information-processing speed (IPS) slowing is a primary cognitive deficit in multiple sclerosis (MS). Basal ganglia, thalamus and neocortex are thought to have a key role for efficient information-processing, yet the specific relative contribution of these structures for MS-related IPS impairment is poorly understood. To determine if basal ganglia and(More)
OBJECTIVES Recent studies have indicated that brain atrophy is more closely associated with cognitive impairment in multiple sclerosis (MS) than are conventional MRI lesion measures. Enlargement of the third ventricle shows a particularly strong correlation with cognitive impairment, suggesting clinical relevance of damage to surrounding structures, such as(More)
BACKGROUND Interferon beta is used to modify the course of relapsing multiple sclerosis. Despite interferon beta therapy, many patients have relapses. Natalizumab, an alpha4 integrin antagonist, appeared to be safe and effective alone and when added to interferon beta-1a in preliminary studies. METHODS We randomly assigned 1171 patients who, despite(More)
BACKGROUND Cognition and magnetic resonance imaging correlations are well established in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), but it is unclear whether lesion burden or atrophy accounts for most of the predictive variance. These indices have been directly compared in only a few studies. No such study included measurement of the third ventricle, which was(More)
BACKGROUND Cognitive dysfunction is common in multiple sclerosis (MS). Correlations are reported between atrophy and neuropsychological test results. OBJECTIVE To determine if neocortical volume would supplant or supplement third ventricular width and other magnetic resonance imaging measures when predicting neuropsychological impairment. DESIGN(More)
The MS Functional Composite (MSFC) is a continuous scale of neurological disability for patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Cognition is represented by the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT), although the Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT) has been proposed as a promising alternative. MSFC scores were calculated using either the PASAT or the(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Increasing evidence suggests that iron deposition is present in the later stages of MS. In this study we examined abnormal phase values, indicative of increased iron content on SWI-filtered phase images of the SDGM in CIS patients and HC. We also examined the association of abnormal phase with conventional MR imaging outcomes at first(More)
BACKGROUND Cognitive impairment is common in multiple sclerosis (MS) affecting roughly 45-60% of patients. Because memory deficits have significant impact on employment, caregiver burden, and social functioning, neuropsychological (NP) assessment is often recommended. Two widely used and validated NP batteries for MS are the Rao Brief Repeatable(More)
We used SPM99 to obtain normalized whole brain volumes of gray matter, white matter, and total parenchyma in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) (n = 41) and age-/sex-matched normal controls (n = 18). As SPM99's automated gray/white matter volumes were significantly influenced by tissue compartment misclassification due to the effect of MS-related brain(More)
BACKGROUND The breakdown of the blood-brain-barrier vascular endothelium is critical for entry of immune cells into the MS brain. Vascular co-morbidities are associated with increased risk of progression. Dyslipidemia, elevated LDL and reduced HDL may increase progression by activating inflammatory processes at the vascular endothelium. OBJECTIVE To(More)