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We have used time-resolved x-ray-generated hydroxyl radical footprinting to directly characterize, at single-nucleotide resolution, several intermediates in the pathway to open complex formation by Escherichia coli RNA polymerase on the T7A1 promoter at 37 degrees C. Three sets of intermediates, corresponding to two major conformational changes, are(More)
Radiolysis of water with a synchrotron x-ray beam permits the hydroxyl radical-accessible surface of an RNA to be mapped with nucleotide resolution in 10 milliseconds. Application of this method to folding of the Tetrahymena ribozyme revealed that the most stable domain of the tertiary structure, P4-P6, formed cooperatively within 3 seconds. Exterior(More)
Hydroxyl radicals (.OH) can cleave the phosphodiester backbone of nucleic acids and are valuable reagents in the study of nucleic acid structure and protein-nucleic acid interactions. Irradiation of solutions by high flux "white light" X-ray beams based on bending magnet beamlines at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) yields sufficient(More)
Salamanders (urodela) have among the largest vertebrate genomes, ranging in size from 10 to over 80 pg. The urodela are divided into ten extant families each with a characteristic range in genome size. Although changes in genome size often occur randomly and in the absence of selection pressure, non‐random patterns of genome size variation are evident among(More)
All organisms that synthesize their own DNA have evolved mechanisms for maintaining a constant DNA/cell mass ratio independent of growth rate. The DNA/cell mass ratio is a central parameter in the processes controlling the cell cycle. The co-ordination of DNA replication with cell growth involves multiple levels of regulation. DNA synthesis is initiated at(More)
The rapid mixing synchrotron X-ray footprinting technique described in this article allows nucleic acid folding and ligand binding reactions to be followed on a millisecond time resolution with single nucleotide resolution. In principle, the change in .OH protection of every nucleotide in a nucleic acid hundreds of nucleotides long can be monitored(More)
Ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) is the bottleneck enzyme in the synthesis of dNTPs required for DNA replication. In order to avoid the mutagenic effects of imbalances in dNTPs the amount and activity of RNR enzyme in the cell is tightly regulated. RNR expression from the nrdAB operon is thus coupled to coincide with the initiation of DNA replication.(More)
We designed a microfluidic chemostat consisting of 600 sub-micron trapping/growth channels connected to two feeding channels. The microchemostat traps E. coli cells and forces them to grow in lines for over 50 generations. Excess cells, including the mother cells captured at the start of the process, are removed from both ends of the growth channels by the(More)
Rv1395 is annotated as a potential transcriptional regulator of the AraC family. The Rv1395 insertional mutant was identified in a signature tag mutagenesis study in Mycobacterium tuberculosis and was shown to be attenuated in the lungs of mice. Here, we used comparative genomics and biochemical methods to show that Rv1395 is unique to the M. tuberculosis(More)