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It is widely believed that generation of mature dendritic cells (DCs) with full T cell stimulatory capacity from human monocytes in vitro requires 5-7 days of differentiation with GM-CSF and IL-4, followed by 2-3 days of activation. Here, we report a new strategy for differentiation and maturation of monocyte-derived DCs within only 48 h of in vitro(More)
We developed a new 2-day protocol for the generation of dendritic cells (DCs) from human monocytes in vitro. First, we demonstrated that 24 hours of culture with GM-CSF and IL-4 are sufficient to generate immature DCs capable of antigen uptake. We then compared two different strategies for DC maturation: proinflammatory mediators were either added together(More)
During acute bacterial infections such as meningitis, neutrophils enter the tissue where they combat the infection before they undergo apoptosis and are taken up by macrophages. Neutrophils show pro-inflammatory activity and may contribute to tissue damage. In pneumococcal meningitis, neuronal damage despite adequate chemotherapy is a frequent clinical(More)
BACKGROUND Recent studies have suggested that, in addition to Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2, other pattern recognition receptors mediate activation of the immune response after infection of the central nervous system (CNS) with Streptococcus pneumoniae (SP). METHODS Using a mouse meningitis model, we investigated the influence of TLR4 single deficiency(More)
Receptor-associated protein kinase activity has been shown in all primary target tissues of insulin action in the rat and a function of insulin receptor phosphorylation in signal transmission was proposed. Insulin receptor phosphorylation so far has not been demonstrated in human target tissues of insulin. We describe here insulin receptor kinase activity(More)
Myeloid cells, including neutrophils and macrophages, play important roles in innate immune defense against acute bacterial infections. Myeloid Src family kinases (SFKs) p59/61(hck) (Hck), p58(c-fgr) (Fgr), and p53/56(lyn) (Lyn) are known to control integrin beta(2) signal transduction and FcgammaR-mediated phagocytosis in leukocytes. In this study, we show(More)
Dendritic cells (DC) can be derived from monocytes in vitro by culture with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interleukin-4 (IL-4). It is unknown whether this regimen reflects DC differentiation from blood precursors under physiological conditions. Induction of DC development from monocytes by interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) may(More)
Catecholamine treatment of isolated rat adipocytes decreases insulin binding and inhibits insulin stimulation of the glucose-transport system. There is increasing evidence that the insulin signal is transmitted after insulin is bound to the receptor via a tyrosine kinase, which is an intrinsic part of the receptor. To find whether the receptor kinase is(More)
Phorbol ester treatment of isolated rat adipocytes inhibits insulin stimulation of the glucose transport system. We studied whether this effect is related to a modification of the insulin receptor kinase. Insulin receptor of tetradecanoyl-beta-phorbol acetate (TPA)-treated adipocytes was solubilized and partially purified, and its kinase activity was(More)
The insulin receptor contains in its beta-subunit a tyrosine (-) specific protein kinase. It is believed that transmission of an insulin signal across the plasma membrane of target cells of insulin action occurs through activation of this kinase, autophosphorylation of the insulin receptor beta-subunit and subsequent phosphorylation of other cellular(More)