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Prediction of which peptides can bind major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules is commonly used to assist in the identification of T cell epitopes. However, because of the large numbers of different MHC molecules of interest, each associated with different predictive tools, tool generation and evaluation can be a very resource intensive task. A(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infections are characterized by early peaks of viraemia that decline as strong cellular immune responses develop. Although it has been shown that virus-specific CD8-positive cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) exert selective pressure during HIV and SIV infection, the data have been(More)
The identification of MHC class II restricted peptide epitopes is an important goal in immunological research. A number of computational tools have been developed for this purpose, but there is a lack of large-scale systematic evaluation of their performance. Herein, we used a comprehensive dataset consisting of more than 10,000 previously unpublished(More)
Of the two rhesus macaque subspecies used for AIDS studies, the Simian immunodeficiency virus-infected Indian rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) is the most established model of HIV infection, providing both insight into pathogenesis and a system for testing novel vaccines. Despite the Chinese rhesus macaque potentially being a more relevant model for AIDS(More)
Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) responses peak coincident with the decline in acute HIV viremia. Despite two reports of CTL-resistant HIV variants emerging during acute infection, the contribution of acute CTL escape to HIV pathogenesis remains unclear. Difficulties inherent in studying acute HIV infection can be overcome by modeling virus-host interactions in(More)
The SIV-infected rhesus macaque is an excellent model to examine candidate AIDS virus vaccines. These vaccines should elicit strong CD8(+) responses. Previous definition of the peptide-binding motif and optimal peptides for Mamu-A*01 has created a demand for Mamu-A*01-positive animals. We have now studied a second MHC class I molecule, Mamu-B*17, that is(More)
Engendering cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) responses is likely to be an important goal of HIV vaccines. However, CTLs select for viral variants that escape immune detection. Maintenance of such escape variants in human populations could pose an obstacle to HIV vaccine development. We first observed that escape mutations in a heterogeneous simian(More)
Several HLA alleles are associated with attenuated human immunodeficiency virus disease progression. We explored the relationship between the expression of particular major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I alleles and viremia in simian immunodeficiency virus SIV(mac)239-infected macaques. Of the common MHC class I alleles, animals that expressed(More)
The SIV-infected Indian rhesus macaque is the most established model of HIV infection, providing insight into pathogenesis and a system for testing novel vaccines. However, only a limited amount of information is available regarding the peptide-binding motifs and epitopes bound by their class I and class II MHC molecules. In this study, we utilized a(More)
The observed role of CTL in the containment of AIDS virus replication suggests that an effective HIV vaccine will be required to generate strong CTL responses. Because epitope-based vaccines offer several potential advantages for inducing strong, multispecific CTL responses, we tested the ability of an epitope-based DNA prime/modified vaccinia virus Ankara(More)