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Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infections are characterized by early peaks of viraemia that decline as strong cellular immune responses develop. Although it has been shown that virus-specific CD8-positive cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) exert selective pressure during HIV and SIV infection, the data have been(More)
The identification of MHC class II restricted peptide epitopes is an important goal in immunological research. A number of computational tools have been developed for this purpose, but there is a lack of large-scale systematic evaluation of their performance. Herein, we used a comprehensive dataset consisting of more than 10,000 previously unpublished(More)
Of the two rhesus macaque subspecies used for AIDS studies, the Simian immunodeficiency virus-infected Indian rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) is the most established model of HIV infection, providing both insight into pathogenesis and a system for testing novel vaccines. Despite the Chinese rhesus macaque potentially being a more relevant model for AIDS(More)
It is becoming increasingly clear that any human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) vaccine should induce a strong CD8(+) response. Additional desirable elements are multispecificity and a focus on conserved epitopes. The use of multiple conserved epitopes arranged in an artificial gene (or EpiGene) is a potential means to achieve these goals. To test this(More)
BACKGROUND Recent importation of Lassa fever into Germany, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, and the United States by travelers on commercial airlines from Africa underscores the public health challenge of emerging viruses. Currently, there are no licensed vaccines for Lassa fever, and no experimental vaccine has completely protected nonhuman primates(More)
Chronic administration of protein therapeutics may elicit unacceptable immune responses to the specific protein. Our hypothesis is that the immunogenicity of protein drugs can be ascribed to a few immunodominant helper T lymphocyte (HTL) epitopes, and that reducing the MHC binding affinity of these HTL epitopes contained within these proteins can generate(More)
Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) responses are thought to control human immunodeficiency virus replication during the acute phase of infection. Understanding the CD8(+) T-cell immune responses early after infection may, therefore, be important to vaccine design. Analyzing these responses in humans is difficult since few patients are diagnosed during early(More)
The Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected Indian rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) is the most established model of HIV infection and AIDS-related research, despite the potential that macaques of Chinese origin is a more relevant model. Ongoing efforts to further characterize the Chinese rhesus macaques' major histocompatibility complex (MHC) for(More)
Non-human primates, in general, and Indian rhesus macaques, specifically, play an important role in the development and testing of vaccines and diagnostics destined for human use. To date, several frequently expressed macaque MHC molecules have been identified and their binding specificities characterized in detail. Here, we report the development of(More)
Vaccine-induced cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) have been implicated in the control of virus replication in simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-challenged and simian-human immunodeficiency virus-challenged macaques. Therefore, we wanted to test the impact that vaccine-induced CTL responses against an immunodominant Gag epitope might have in the absence of(More)