The type 2 ryanodine receptor/calcium release channel (RyR2), required for excitation-contraction coupling in the heart, is abundant in the brain. Chronic stress induces catecholamine biosynthesis and release, stimulating β-adrenergic receptors and activating cAMP signaling pathways in neurons. In a murine chronic restraint stress model, neuronal RyR2 were… (More)
Oxidative stress has been suggested to play a role in the pathogenesis of atrial fibrillation (AF). Indeed, the prevalence of AF increases with age as does oxidative stress. However, the mechanisms linking redox state to AF are not well understood. In this study we identify a link between oxidative stress and aberrant intracellular Ca(2+) release via the… (More)
Single wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) 1 are a remarkable new class of nanometer diameter metallic and semiconduct-ing wires that carry current as π electrons propagating on their graphitic surface. They are physically robust, exhibit great tensile strength, do not oxidize or have surface states under ambient conditions, and show high conductivity. 2 They are… (More)
about 50 MMor approximately 42 ng/ml. Similar measurements could be made by radioimmunoassay.