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Sustained and complete inhibition of HER3 and its output to PI3K/Akt are required for the optimal antitumor effect of therapeutic inhibitors of the HER2 oncogene. Here, we show that, after inhibition of the HER2 tyrosine kinase with lapatinib, there is PI3K/Akt and FoxO3a-dependent up-regulation of HER3 mRNA and protein. Up-regulated HER3 was then(More)
PURPOSE Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) loss or activating mutations of phosphoinositol-3 (PI3) kinase (PIK3CA) may be associated with trastuzumab resistance. Trastuzumab, the humanized human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) monoclonal antibody, and lapatinib, an epidermal growth factor receptor/HER2 tyrosine kinase inhibitor, are both(More)
Obesity is thought to contribute to worse disease outcome in breast cancer as a result of increased levels of adipocyte-secreted endocrine factors, insulin, and insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) that accelerate tumor cell proliferation and impair treatment response. We examined the effects of patient obesity on primary breast tumor gene expression, by(More)
Breast cancer relapse, in a large number of patients, after initial response to standard of care therapy warrants development of novel therapies against recurrent and metastatic cancer. Cancer stem cells (CSCs), present in breast tumors while being intrinsically resistant to conventional therapy, have the ability to self renew and cause tumor recurrence.(More)
Uterine leiomyomata, or fibroids, are benign tumors of the uterine myometrium that significantly affect up to 30% of reproductive-age women. Despite being the primary cause of hysterectomy in the United States, accounting for up to 200,000 procedures annually, the etiology of leiomyoma remains largely unknown. As a basis for understanding leiomyoma(More)
PURPOSE The involvement of phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome ten (PTEN) in endometrial carcinoma has implicated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) activation in this disease. Understanding the extent of mTOR involvement and the mechanism responsible for activation is important, as mTOR(More)
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive form of breast cancer with no effective targeted therapy. Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is associated with poor survival in patients with breast cancer by increasing tumor aggressiveness. This work aimed to investigate the potential of iNOS inhibitors as a targeted therapy for TNBC. We(More)
Despite the initial effectiveness of the tyrosine kinase inhibitor lapatinib against HER2 gene-amplified breast cancers, most patients eventually relapse after treatment, implying that tumors acquire mechanisms of drug resistance. To discover these mechanisms, we generated six lapatinib-resistant HER2-overexpressing human breast cancer cell lines. In cells(More)
We hypothesized that a subset of sporadic triple negative (TN) breast cancer patients whose tumors have defective DNA repair similar to BRCA1-associated tumors are more likely to exhibit up-regulation of DNA repair-related genes, anthracycline-sensitivity, and taxane-resistance. We derived a defective DNA repair gene expression signature of 334 genes by(More)
The hepatitis C virus (HCV) nonstructural protein 5B (NS5B) is believed to be the central catalytic enzyme responsible for HCV replication but there are many unanswered questions about how its activity is controlled. In this study we reveal that two other HCV proteins, NS3 (a protease/helicase) and NS4B (a hydrophobic protein of unknown function),(More)