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Sustained and complete inhibition of HER3 and its output to PI3K/Akt are required for the optimal antitumor effect of therapeutic inhibitors of the HER2 oncogene. Here, we show that, after inhibition of the HER2 tyrosine kinase with lapatinib, there is PI3K/Akt and FoxO3a-dependent up-regulation of HER3 mRNA and protein. Up-regulated HER3 was then(More)
PURPOSE Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) loss or activating mutations of phosphoinositol-3 (PI3) kinase (PIK3CA) may be associated with trastuzumab resistance. Trastuzumab, the humanized human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) monoclonal antibody, and lapatinib, an epidermal growth factor receptor/HER2 tyrosine kinase inhibitor, are both(More)
Obesity is thought to contribute to worse disease outcome in breast cancer as a result of increased levels of adipocyte-secreted endocrine factors, insulin, and insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) that accelerate tumor cell proliferation and impair treatment response. We examined the effects of patient obesity on primary breast tumor gene expression, by(More)
Uterine leiomyomata, or fibroids, are benign tumors of the uterine myometrium that significantly affect up to 30% of reproductive-age women. Despite being the primary cause of hysterectomy in the United States, accounting for up to 200,000 procedures annually, the etiology of leiomyoma remains largely unknown. As a basis for understanding leiomyoma(More)
Despite the initial effectiveness of the tyrosine kinase inhibitor lapatinib against HER2 gene-amplified breast cancers, most patients eventually relapse after treatment, implying that tumors acquire mechanisms of drug resistance. To discover these mechanisms, we generated six lapatinib-resistant HER2-overexpressing human breast cancer cell lines. In cells(More)
Breast cancer relapse, in a large number of patients, after initial response to standard of care therapy warrants development of novel therapies against recurrent and metastatic cancer. Cancer stem cells (CSCs), present in breast tumors while being intrinsically resistant to conventional therapy, have the ability to self renew and cause tumor recurrence.(More)
The hepatitis C virus (HCV) nonstructural protein 5B (NS5B) is believed to be the central catalytic enzyme responsible for HCV replication but there are many unanswered questions about how its activity is controlled. In this study we reveal that two other HCV proteins, NS3 (a protease/helicase) and NS4B (a hydrophobic protein of unknown function),(More)
We hypothesized that a subset of sporadic triple negative (TN) breast cancer patients whose tumors have defective DNA repair similar to BRCA1-associated tumors are more likely to exhibit up-regulation of DNA repair-related genes, anthracycline-sensitivity, and taxane-resistance. We derived a defective DNA repair gene expression signature of 334 genes by(More)
The antibody trastuzumab is approved for treatment of patients with HER2 (ERBB2)-overexpressing breast cancer. A significant fraction of these tumors are either intrinsically resistant or acquire resistance rendering the drug ineffective. The development of resistance has been attributed to failure of the antibody to inhibit phosphoinositide 3-kinase(More)
Cancer stem cells are resistant to current chemotherapy and radiation regimens available for breast cancer, making it imperative to study the mechanisms of resistance and development of therapeutic strategies that targets the tumor initiating cell population. One of the difficulties in identifying new drug targets has been that our current high throughput(More)