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Basal-like breast cancers arising in women carrying mutations in the BRCA1 gene, encoding the tumor suppressor protein BRCA1, are thought to develop from the mammary stem cell. To explore early cellular changes that occur in BRCA1 mutation carriers, we have prospectively isolated distinct epithelial subpopulations from normal mammary tissue and(More)
INTRODUCTION Molecular characterization of the normal epithelial cell types that reside in the mammary gland is an important step toward understanding pathways that regulate self-renewal, lineage commitment, and differentiation along the hierarchy. Here we determined the gene expression signatures of four distinct subpopulations isolated from the mouse(More)
The ovarian hormones oestrogen and progesterone profoundly influence breast cancer risk, underpinning the benefit of endocrine therapies in the treatment of breast cancer. Modulation of their effects through ovarian ablation or chemoprevention strategies also significantly decreases breast cancer incidence. Conversely, there is an increased risk of breast(More)
The Saccharomyces cerevisiae basic leucine zipper transcription factor Hac1p is synthesized in response to the accumulation of unfolded polypeptides in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and it is responsible for up-regulation of ϳ5% of all yeast genes, including ER-resident chaperones and protein-folding catalysts. Hac1p is one of the most(More)
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been implicated in governing lineage specification and differentiation in multiple organs; however, little is known about their specific roles in mammopoiesis. We have determined the global miRNA expression profiles of functionally distinct epithelial subpopulations in mouse and human mammary tissue, and compared these to their(More)
The mammary gland represents a unique tissue to study organogenesis as it predominantly develops in the post-natal animal and undergoes dramatic morphogenetic changes during puberty and the reproductive cycle. The physiological function of the mammary gland is to produce milk to sustain the newborn. Here we view the lactating gland through three-dimensional(More)
Endodontically treated teeth with excessive loss of tooth structure would require to be restored with post and core to enhance the strength and durability of the tooth and to achieve retention for the restoration. The non-metallic posts have a superior aesthetic quality. Various core build-up materials can be used to build-up cores on the posts placed in(More)
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