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Mutations in the DIIS4-S5 linker and DIIS5 have identified hotspots of pyrethroid and DDT interaction with the Drosophila para sodium channel. Wild-type and mutant channels were expressed in Xenopus oocytes and subjected to voltage-clamp analysis. Substitutions L914I, M918T, L925I, T929I and C933A decreased deltamethrin potency, M918T, L925I and T929I(More)
A homology model of the housefly voltage-gated sodium channel was developed to predict the location of binding sites for the insecticides fenvalerate, a synthetic pyrethroid, and DDT an early generation organochlorine. The model successfully addresses the state-dependent affinity of pyrethroid insecticides, their mechanism of action and the role of(More)
Antibacterial activity in 51 extracts from 29 plant species currently used in traditional medicine in Trinidad and the neighbouring Caribbean islands was tested for by the agar dilution streak method using six bacteria: Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Salmonella tophimurium, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Enterococcus(More)
To investigate the effect of botanicals on the foraging behavior of the mealybug predatorCryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant, predator larvae and adults were exposed to leaves and the mealybugPlanococcus citri (Risso) treated with one of the following: a crude neem seed extract; a formulation of azadirachtin (Azatin EC®); a pyrethrum extract; and one of two(More)
A structural investigation of autoxidation products of methyl oleate was carried out by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) of trimethylsilyl (TMS) ether derivatives. GC-MS using computer plots of selected masses afforded structural assignments of GC peaks due to incompletely resolved mixtures. This method provided evidence of epoxy and keto esters(More)
Two compounds recognized as responsible for the insecticidal activity of extracts of Calceolaria andina L. (Scrophulariaceae) have been isolated and characterized as 2-(1, 1-dimethylprop-2-enyl)-3-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone and the corresponding acetate, 2-acetoxy-3-(1,1-dimethylprop-2-enyl)-1, 4-naphthoquinone. Their activities against 29 pest species and(More)
The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) approach developed in the preceding paper was applied for qualitative and quantitative investigations of autoxidation products of methyl linoleate. A GC-MS computer summation method was standardized with synthetic 9- and 13-hydroxyoctadecanoate. Equal amounts of 9- and 13-hydroperoxides were found in all(More)
The essential oil of Hemizygia petiolata Ashby (Lamiaceae) contains high levels (>70%) of the sesquiterpene (E)-beta-farnesene, the alarm pheromone for many economically important aphid species. In order to test the suitability of H. petiolata oil as a source of (E)-beta-farnesene for use in new integrated aphid control strategies, behavioural responses of(More)
Destruxin A, a cyclohexadepsipeptide related to the enniatins and beauvericin, exhibits ionophoric properties. Calcium ion mobilization across liposomal membrane barriers, for example, has been demonstrated using the calcium ion-sensitive dyes Arsenazo III and Fura-2. Initial molecular mechanics/molecular dynamics calculations indicate the potential for(More)
Quantification of artemisinin purity and amount in plant material and extracts to date has been characterized by a considerable inconsistency in values. This is likely to be due to the adoption of varied analytical procedures and use of inappropriate to the specific applications analytical techniques. In this paper we are attempting to further develop(More)