Bhupat D Rawal

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OBJECTIVES The characterization of primary HIV infection by the analysis of serial plasma samples from newly infected persons using multiple standard viral assays. DESIGN A retrospective study involving two sets of archived samples from HIV-infected plasma donors. (A) 435 samples from 51 donors detected by anti-HIV enzyme immunoassays donated during(More)
CONTEXT Differentiating individuals with early human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) infection from those infected for longer periods is difficult but important for estimating HIV incidence and for purposes of clinical care and prevention. OBJECTIVE To develop and validate a serologic testing algorithm in which HIV-1-positive persons with reactive test(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the sensitivity and specificity of symptoms, three HIV-1 RNA assays, a p24 antigen EIA and a third-generation enzyme immunoassay (EIA) antibody test for diagnosis of primary HIV infection (PHI). DESIGN Prospective cohort in a university research program. PARTICIPANTS Of 258 eligible persons screened for PHI, 40 had primary/early(More)
The sensitive/less-sensitive (S/LS) enzyme immunoassay (EIA) testing strategy for discriminating "early" from "longstanding" HIV infection has been widely applied for detecting recent seroconverters and estimating HIV incidence rates. The originally developed assay (3A11-LS EIA; Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, IL) involved performance of LS EIAs using a(More)
Timely estimates of HIV incidence are needed to monitor the epidemic and target primary prevention but have been difficult to obtain. We applied a sensitive/ less-sensitive (S/LS) enzyme immunoassay (EIA) testing strategy to stored HIV-positive sera (N = 452) to identify early infections, estimate incidence, and characterize correlates of recent(More)
HIV-specific antibodies become detectable and continue to increase in frequency during primary infection. The effects of early antiretroviral treatment (ART) and its discontinuation on the evolution of this immune response have not been systematically analyzed. To investigate the associations between antibody titer, viral load, and ART, we used a(More)
Although the numbers of newly reported diagnoses of AIDS decreased in the 1990s, it is not clear whether they reflect a decreasing number of new HIV infections. Direct measurement of HIV incidence through follow-up cohort studies is difficult and costly. We estimated HIV incidence and trends in incidence among men who have sex with men (MSM) and(More)
OBJECTIVES To determine temporal trends in HIV infection and risk factors among persons seeking anonymous HIV testing in Santos, Brazil. METHODS Data and sera from persons testing for HIV from 1996 to 1999 were used. Exposures were abstracted from HIV testing risk assessments. Stored HIV-positive sera were tested to identify recently acquired HIV(More)
  • B D Rawal
  • The Journal of antimicrobial chemotherapy
  • 1987
Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and extinction time (ET) of framycetin (0.5% in isotonic buffer) were determined. Of 90 consecutive clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, obtained from patients with ear or eye infections, 88.9% were inhibited by 62.5 mg/l and 96.66% were killed within 60 min by framycetin (0.5%). Determination of ET appears to(More)
BACKGROUND Studies showing a significant correlation between hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) levels have focused on the HBV seroconversion window period. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS HBsAg levels relative to HBV DNA results in 200 HBsAg-positive, anti-hepatitis B core antigen (HBc)-reactive blood(More)