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Cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells are highly efficient cytotoxic effector cells capable of lysing tumor cell targets. Cultures of human CIK cells have been shown to have enhanced cytotoxicity and to proliferate more rapidly than lymphokine activated killer (LAK) cells by both in vitro and in vivo studies. In this report, we have further characterized the(More)
Email spam is a much studied topic, but even though current email spam detecting software has been gaining a competitive edge against text based email spam, new advances in spam generation have posed a new challenge: image-based spam. Image based spam is email which includes embedded images containing the spam messages, but in binary format. In this paper,(More)
The widespread deployment of recommender systems has lead to user feedback of varying quality. While some users faithfully express their true opinion, many provide noisy ratings which can be detrimental to the quality of the generated recommendations. The presence of noise can violate modeling assumptions and may thus lead to instabilities in estimation and(More)
Collaborative Filtering systems are essentially social systems which base their recommendation on the judgment of a large number of people. However, like other social systems, they are also vulnerable to manipulation by malicious social elements. <i>Lies and Propaganda</i> may be spread by a malicious user who may have an interest in promoting an item, or(More)
We have developed culture conditions for the efficient expansion of cytotoxic effector cells from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNCs) by the timed addition of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), interleukin-2 (IL-2), and the monoclonal antibody (MoAb) OKT3. These cells, termed cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells, are composed primarily of T cells, and the(More)
With the increasing popularity of recommender systems in commercial services, the quality of recommendations has increasingly become an important to study, much like the quality of search results from search engines. While some users faithfully express their true opinion, many provide noisy or incorrect ratings which can be detrimental to the quality of the(More)
Cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells are non-major histocompatibility complex-restricted cytotoxic cells generated by incubation of peripheral blood lymphocytes with anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody (MoAb), interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-1, and interferon-gamma. Cells with the greatest effector function in CIK cultures coexpress CD3 and CD56 surface molecules. CIK(More)