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Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an evolutionarily conserved signaling molecule that is emerging as one of the most important energy sensors in the body. AMPK monitors cellular energy status and is activated via phosphorylation when energy stores are low. This allows for maintenance of energy homeostasis by promoting catabolic(More)
Aging is a non-modifiable risk factor for stroke. Since not all strokes can be prevented, a major emerging area of research is the development of effective strategies to enhance functional recovery after stroke. However, in the vast majority of pre-clinical stroke studies, the behavioral tests used to assess functional recovery have only been validated for(More)
Aging and biological sex are critical determinants of stroke outcome. Post-ischemic inflammatory response strongly contributes to the extent of ischemic brain injury, but how this response changes with age and sex is unknown. We subjected young (5-6 months), middle aged (14-15 months) and aged (20-22 months), C57BL/6 male and female mice to transient middle(More)
OBJECTIVE Transforming growth factor-β-activated kinase (TAK1) is a member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase family that plays important roles in apoptosis and inflammatory signaling, both of which are critical components of stroke pathology. TAK1 has recently been identified as a major upstream kinase that phosphorylates and activates adenosine(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), particularly c-jun-N-terminal kinases (JNK) and p38 exacerbates stroke injury by provoking pro-apoptotic and pro-inflammatory cellular signaling. MAPK phosphatase-1 (MKP-1) restrains the over-activation of MAPKs via rapid de-phosphorylation of the MAPKs. We therefore examined(More)
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