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Activation of the serine/threonine protein kinase Akt/PKB is a multi-step process involving membrane recruitment, phosphorylation, and membrane detachment. To investigate this process in the cellular context, we employed a live-cell fluorescence imaging approach to examine conformational changes of Akt and its membrane association. A fluorescence resonance(More)
Mammalian phospholipases D (PLD), which catalyze the hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine to phosphatidic acid (PA), have been implicated in various cell signaling and vesicle trafficking processes. Mammalian PLD1 contains two different membrane-targeting domains, pleckstrin homology and Phox homology (PX) domains, but the precise roles of these domains in the(More)
The mechanisms by which secretory phospholipase A2 (PLA2) exerts cellular effects are not fully understood. To elucidate these mechanisms, we systematically and quantitatively assessed the activities of human group IIA, V, and X PLA2s on originating and neighboring cells using orthogonal fluorogenic substrates in various mixed cell systems. When HEK293(More)
The C2 domain is a Ca(2+)-dependent membrane-targeting module found in many cellular proteins involved in signal transduction or membrane trafficking. To understand the mechanisms by which the C2 domain mediates the membrane targeting of PLC-delta isoforms, we measured the in vitro membrane binding of the C2 domains of PLC-delta1, -delta3, and -delta4 by(More)
The regulatory domains of conventional and novel protein kinases C (PKC) have two C1 domains (C1A and C1B) that have been identified as the interaction site for diacylglycerol (DAG) and phorbol ester. It has been reported that C1A and C1B domains of individual PKC isoforms play different roles in their membrane binding and activation; however, DAG affinity(More)
Among various second messengers, phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-triphosphate (PIP3) and phosphatidylinositol 3,4-bisphosphate [PI(3,4)P2] regulate a variety of cellular processes, such as cell survival, polarization, and proliferation. Many of these functions are achieved via activation of serine/threonine kinase Akt. To investigate the spatiotemporal(More)
Two novel protein kinases C (PKC), PKCdelta and PKCepsilon, have been reported to have opposing functions in some mammalian cells. To understand the basis of their distinct cellular functions and regulation, we investigated the mechanism of in vitro and cellular sn-1,2-diacylglycerol (DAG)-mediated membrane binding of PKCepsilon and compared it with that of(More)
The complexity and specificity of many forms of signal transduction are widely suspected to require spatial microcompartmentation and dynamic modulation of the activities of protein kinases, phosphatases, and second messengers. However, traditional methodologies for detecting signaling events, such as activation of kinases and second-messenger production(More)
The regulatory domains of novel protein kinases C (PKC) contain two C1 domains (C1A and C1B), which have been identified as the interaction site for sn-1,2-diacylglycerol (DAG) and phorbol ester, and a C2 domain that may be involved in interaction with lipids and/or proteins. Although recent reports have indicated that C1A and C1B domains of conventional(More)
The interactions of PI-PLC with nonsubstrate zwitterionic [phosphatidylcholine (PC)] and anionic [phosphatidylmethanol (PMe), phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylglycerol, and phosphatidic acid] interfaces that affect the catalytic activity of PI-PLC have been examined. PI-PLC binding is strongly coupled to vesicle curvature and is tighter at acidic pH for all(More)