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Pathfinder is an expert system that assists surgical pathologists with the diagnosis of lymph-node diseases. The program is one of a growing number of normative expert systems that use probability and decision theory to acquire, represent, manipulate, and explain uncertain medical knowledge. In this article, we describe Pathfinder and our research in(More)
BACKGROUND Adolescent/young adult Hodgkin lymphoma (AYAHL) survivors report fewer exposures to infections during childhood compared with controls, and they have functional lymphocyte aberrations. The gut microbiota plays a central role in immunity. METHODS We investigated whether fecal microbial diversity differed between 13 AYAHL survivors and their(More)
We address practical issues concerning the construction and use of decision-theoretic or normative expert systems for diagnosis. In particular, we examine Pathfinder, a normative expert system that assists surgical pathologists with the diagnosis of lymph-node diseases, and discuss the representation of dependencies among pieces of evidence within this(More)
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We present an evaluation of the diagnostic accuracy of Pathfinder, an expert system that assists pathologists with the diagnosis of lymph node diseases. We evaluate two versions of the system using both informal and decision-theoretic metrics of performance. In one version of Pathfinder, we assume incorrectly that all observations are conditionally(More)
Few large, international series of enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma (EATL) have been reported. We studied a cohort of 62 patients with EATL among 1153 patients with peripheral T-cell or natural killer (NK)-cell lymphoma from 22 centers worldwide. The diagnosis was made by a consensus panel of 4 expert hematopathologists using World Health Organization(More)
A criticism of diagnostic systems, which are based on the formal foundations of probability and utility, is that their reasoning strategies and recommendations are inflexible and unnatural. We have developed a facility that increases the flexibility of normative reasoning systems by providing multiple human-oriented perspectives on diagnostic problem(More)
The distribution of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) subtypes differs around the world but a systematic study of Latin America has not been done. Therefore, we evaluated the relative frequencies of NHL subtypes in Central and South America (CSA). Five expert hematopathologists classified consecutive cases of NHL from 5 CSA countries using the WHO classification(More)
In this report, the Association of Directors of Anatomic and Surgical Pathology (ADASP) provides guidelines for the reporting of lymphoid neoplasms. The World Health Organization Classification of Tumors of the Haematopoietic and Lymphoid Tissues is the preferred international standard for diagnostic criteria (disease definition) and nomenclature. Ancillary(More)