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BACKGROUND In the Medical Research Council (MRC) COIN trial, the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-targeted antibody cetuximab was added to standard chemotherapy in first-line treatment of advanced colorectal cancer with the aim of assessing effect on overall survival. METHODS In this randomised controlled trial, patients who were fit for but had(More)
A simple and versatile technique for the preparation of ultra-thin sections, which can be stained immunohistochemically directly on electron microscope grids, is presented. An anti-hapten immunoperoxidase procedure has been adapted for use on tissue fixed in a purified monomeric glutaraldehyde--picric acid mixture, and embedded in 'L R White', a recently(More)
Interest has recently been shown in adapting the microwave oven heating technique for antigen retrieval to routine diagnostic immunocytochemical practice. Although it has proved effective as a specialist method for individual antigen localization in many laboratories, it has certain drawbacks which have hampered its wider routine application. These include(More)
High-temperature preheating of sections in the presence of a salt (e.g., citrate) or a protein denaturant (e.g., urea) solution has been shown recently to provide a reliable alternative to tissue proteolysis for antigen retrieval from formaldehyde-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues. However, the underlying mechanism of action of this form of pretreatment(More)
AIMS To investigate interlaboratory variance in the immunohistochemical (IHC) detection of oestrogen receptors so as to determine the rate of false negatives, which could adversely influence the decision to give adjuvant tamoxifen treatment. METHODS To ensure that similar results are obtained by different institutions, 200 laboratories from 26 countries(More)
Cervical screening has resulted in a major reduction in the incidence and mortality of cervical cancer in the UK and other developed countries. Nevertheless approximately 2700 women present with cervical cancer in the UK each year with mortality in excess of 1000 cases. Prophylactic HPV vaccination against HPV 16 and 18 has been shown to be highly effective(More)
The estimation of the age of skin bruises is of importance in forensic medicine, especially in child abuse cases. Time-dependent changes in bruise colour and/or associated histological features have been used with a limited degree of success. An increased rate of apoptosis in the injured tissue has been considered as a novel time-dependent marker of cell(More)
BACKGROUND Trastuzumab was approved in the United Kingdom for adjuvant treatment of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)+ breast cancer in 2006 at significant economic cost and with limited evidence in smaller T1N0 tumours. The South East Wales Cancer Network covers a population of 1,420,000 and maintains a database of treatments used. We(More)
The sensitive and reliable dinitrophenyl (DNP) hapten sandwich staining (DHSS) procedure (B. Jasani et al., Virchows Arch (Pathol. Anat.), 406 (1985) 441-448) was used to study the distribution of immunoperoxidase staining seen with antibodies to seven protein markers in post-mortem heart tissue. This was obtained from 12 cases with macroscopic myocardial(More)
Metallothioneins (MTs) are a set of low molecular weight proteins with a high binding affinity to metal ions. MT over-expression has been recently demonstrated in invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast with poor clinical prognosis. In the present study, MTs have been immunohistochemically investigated in normal human breast tissue and a variety of benign,(More)