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BACKGROUND In the Medical Research Council (MRC) COIN trial, the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-targeted antibody cetuximab was added to standard chemotherapy in first-line treatment of advanced colorectal cancer with the aim of assessing effect on overall survival. METHODS In this randomised controlled trial, patients who were fit for but had(More)
  • G. R. Newman, B. Jasani, E. D. Williams
  • 1983
A simple and versatile technique for the preparation of ultra-thin sections, which can be stained immunohistochemically directly on electron microscope grids, is presented. An anti-hapten immunoperoxidase procedure has been adapted for use on tissue fixed in a purified monomeric glutaraldehyde-picric acid mixture, and embedded in ‘L R White’, a recently(More)
Interest has recently been shown in adapting the microwave oven heating technique for antigen retrieval to routine diagnostic immunocytochemical practice. Although it has proved effective as a specialist method for individual antigen localization in many laboratories, it has certain drawbacks which have hampered its wider routine application. These include(More)
AIMS A routine immunohistochemical (IHC) assay is now commonly used for determining the oestrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) status of women with breast cancer. To date, no large studies have been conducted that report the expected frequency of receptor positivity in relation to patient age and sensitivity of the IHC assay. Data on 7016(More)
High-temperature preheating of sections in the presence of a salt (e.g., citrate) or a protein denaturant (e.g., urea) solution has been shown recently to provide a reliable alternative to tissue proteolysis for antigen retrieval from formaldehyde-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues. However, the underlying mechanism of action of this form of pretreatment(More)
AIMS To investigate interlaboratory variance in the immunohistochemical (IHC) detection of oestrogen receptors so as to determine the rate of false negatives, which could adversely influence the decision to give adjuvant tamoxifen treatment. METHODS To ensure that similar results are obtained by different institutions, 200 laboratories from 26 countries(More)
This study investigated whether intimal proliferation, the characteristic feature of the response of human saphenous vein to arterial implantation, also occurs in organ culture. Vein segments were maintained for 14 days in medium supplemented with 30% fetal bovine serum. Tissue viability (measured by adenosine triphosphate [ATP] concentration) decreased(More)
Prophylactic vaccination against high risk human papilloma virus (HPV) 16 and 18 represents an exciting means of protection against HPV related malignancy. However, this strategy alone, even if there is a level of cross protection against other oncogenic viruses, cannot completely prevent cervical cancer. In some developed countries cervical screening(More)
Breast cancer remains a significant scientific, clinical and societal challenge. This gap analysis has reviewed and critically assessed enduring issues and new challenges emerging from recent research, and proposes strategies for translating solutions into practice. More than 100 internationally recognised specialist breast cancer scientists, clinicians and(More)
Metallothioneins (MTs) are ubiquitous low-molecular-weight proteins with a high affinity for heavy metal ions such as zinc, copper and cadmium. MT over-expression has been associated with resistance against anticancer drugs. In the present study we investigated 86 cases (45 cases of tumour category pT1 and 41 of category pT2) of routinely fixed and(More)