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To understand the biology and evolution of ruminants, the cattle genome was sequenced to about sevenfold coverage. The cattle genome contains a minimum of 22,000 genes, with a core set of 14,345 orthologs shared among seven mammalian species of which 1217 are absent or undetected in noneutherian (marsupial or monotreme) genomes. Cattle-specific evolutionary(More)
BACKGROUND The Pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (PAGs) belong to a large family of aspartic peptidases expressed exclusively in the placenta of species in the Artiodactyla order. In cattle, the PAG gene family is comprised of at least 22 transcribed genes, as well as some variants. Phylogenetic analyses have shown that the PAG family segregates into(More)
The pig is an ideal large animal model for genetic engineering applications. A relatively short gestation interval and large litter size makes the pig a conducive model for generating and propagating genetic modifications. The domestic pig also shares close similarity in anatomy, physiology, size, and life expectancy, making it an ideal animal for modeling(More)
The pig is important for agriculture and as an animal model in human and veterinary medicine, yet despite over 20 years of effort, there has been a failure to generate pluripotent stem cells analogous to those derived from mouse embryos. Here we report the production of leukemia inhibitory factor-dependent, so-called naive type, pluripotent stem cells from(More)
The recent development of gene editing tools and methodology for use in livestock enables the production of new animal disease models. These tools facilitate site-specific mutation of the genome, allowing animals carrying known human disease mutations to be produced. In this review, we describe the various gene editing tools and how they can be used for a(More)
This review focuses on a now well-established model for generating cells of the trophoblast (TB) lineage by treating human embryonic stem cells (ESC) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) with the growth factor BMP4. We first discuss the opposing roles of FGF2 and BMP4 in directing TB formation and the need to exclude the former from the growth medium(More)
The domestic pig is an important "dual purpose" animal model for agricultural and biomedical applications. There is an emerging consensus in the biomedical community for the use of large animal models such as pigs to either serve as an alternative, or complement investigations from the mouse. However, the use of pig has not proven popular due to technical(More)
Genome editing tools have revolutionized the generation of genetically modified animals including livestock. In particular, the domestic pig is a proven model of human physiology and an agriculturally important species. In this study, we utilized the CRISPR/Cas9 system to edit the NANOS2 gene in pig embryos to generate offspring with mono-allelic and(More)
The domestic pig is an ideal "dual purpose" animal model for agricultural and biomedical research. With the availability of genome editing tools such as clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) and associated nuclease Cas9 (CRISPR/Cas9), it is now possible to perform site-specific alterations with relative ease, and will likely help(More)
Selective methylation of CpG islands at imprinting control regions (ICR) determines the monoparental expression of a subset of genes. Currently, it is unclear whether artificial reprogramming induced by the expression of Yamanaka factors disrupts these marks and whether cell type of origin affects the dynamics of reprogramming. In this study, spermatogonial(More)