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CONTEXT The impact of HIV infection and exposure to antiretroviral therapy on the development of subclinical atherosclerosis is incompletely understood. OBJECTIVE To compare intima-media thickness (IMT) of the carotid artery between HIV-infected subjects receiving protease inhibitor-containing regimens and subjects not receiving these regimens and to(More)
OBJECTIVES To compare the rate of change in intima-media thickness (IMT) of the carotid artery among uninfected subjects and HIV-infected subjects receiving or not receiving protease inhibitor (PI) regimens over a 144 week period. DESIGN This prospective, matched cohort study enrolled 133 subjects into 45 triads (groups of three subjects matched by age,(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effects of metformin and rosiglitazone, alone or in combination, on fat distribution, insulin sensitivity, and lipids in HIV-infected patients with insulin resistance and changes in fat distribution. METHODS A total of 105 subjects were randomly assigned to receive metformin (500 mg twice a day increasing to 1000 mg twice a day(More)
BACKGROUND Rifampin is the cornerstone of antituberculosis therapy, but induction of hepatic cytochrome P4503A by rifampin markedly lowers HIV protease inhibitor plasma concentrations. METHODS This phase 1, open-label, one-arm study was designed to assess pharmacokinetic interactions and safety of atazanavir, ritonavir, and rifampin among 14 evaluable(More)
Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in subjects coinfected with HIV. Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) and adefovir dipivoxil (ADV) are licensed for the treatment of HIV-1 and HBV infection, respectively, but both have in vivo and in vitro activity against HBV. This study evaluated the anti-HBV(More)
BACKGROUND Decreased bone mineral density (BMD) is prevalent in HIV-infected patients. Bisphosphonates are currently the mainstay of treatment for postmenopausal and male osteoporosis in HIV-uninfected individuals; however, their efficacy and safety in HIV-infected patients remains unclear. METHODS In this prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled(More)
BACKGROUND Peripartum administration of single-dose nevirapine reduces mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) but selects for nevirapine-resistant virus. METHODS In seven African countries, women infected with HIV-1 whose CD4+ T-cell counts were below 200 per cubic millimeter and who either had or had not taken(More)
BACKGROUND Dyslipidaemia is very common in patients with HIV infection, but current therapies are often suboptimal. Since niacin may cause insulin resistance and hepatotoxicity, it has generally been avoided in this setting. METHODS Non-diabetic male subjects (n=33) who had well-controlled HIV infection on antiretroviral therapy, fasting triglycerides >(More)
BACKGROUND Reconstitution of immune function during potent antiretroviral therapy can prompt discontinuation of maintenance cytomegalovirus (CMV) therapy but has also been associated with sight-threatening inflammatory conditions including immune recovery uveitis (IRU). METHOD Patients with inactive CMV retinitis and a CD4+ cell count above 100/mm3,(More)
Several studies have reported improvement in lipids after antiretroviral therapy switches to tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF)-containing regimens. We assessed lipid-lowering effects of TDF by adding it to a stable antiretroviral therapy regimen in this double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study. We demonstrated that nonhigh-density lipoprotein(More)