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A variety of studies have shown that differentiation of Dictyostelium discoideum amoebae in the presence of cAMP is strongly influenced by extracellular pH and various other treatments thought to act by modifying intracellular pH. Thus conditions expected to lower intracellular pH markedly enhance stalk cell formation, while treatments with the opposite(More)
Pediatric dysphagia-feeding and swallowing difficulties that begin at birth, last throughout childhood, and continue into maturity--is one of the most common, least understood complications in children with developmental disorders. We argue that a major cause of pediatric dysphagia is altered hindbrain patterning during pre-natal development. Such changes(More)
We assessed feeding-related developmental anomalies in the LgDel mouse model of chromosome 22q11 deletion syndrome (22q11DS), a common developmental disorder that frequently includes perinatal dysphagia--debilitating feeding, swallowing and nutrition difficulties from birth onward--within its phenotypic spectrum. LgDel pups gain significantly less weight(More)
Understanding the developmental etiology of autistic spectrum disorders, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and schizophrenia remains a major challenge for establishing new diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to these common, difficult-to-treat diseases that compromise neural circuits in the cerebral cortex. One aspect of this challenge is the(More)
Previous studies in the chick embryo have shown that sensory neurons fail to innervate muscle in the absence of motor neurons. Instead, motor neuron deletion causes more sensory axons to project to the skin. We used this experimental paradigm to determine when sensory neurons are specified to become proprioceptive afferents. Experimental embryos were(More)
Ranbp1, a Ran GTPase-binding protein implicated in nuclear/cytoplasmic trafficking, is included within the DiGeorge/22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (22q11.2 DS) critical region associated with behavioral impairments including autism and schizophrenia. Ranbp1 is highly expressed in the developing forebrain ventricular/subventricular zone but has no known obligate(More)
Genes encoding nuclear receptors (NRs) are attractive as candidates for investigating the evolution of gene regulation because they (1) have a direct effect on gene expression and (2) modulate many cellular processes that underlie development. We employed a three-phase investigation linking NR molecular evolution among primates with direct experimental(More)
Comparative genomic analysis of the nuclear receptor family suggests that the testicular receptor 2, Nr2c1, undergoes positive selection in the human-chimpanzee clade based upon a significant increase in nonsynonymous compared to synonymous substitutions. Previous in situ analyses of Nr2c1 lacked the temporal range and spatial resolution necessary to(More)
Many molecular factors required for later stages of neuronal differentiation have been identified; however, much less is known about the early events that regulate the initial establishment of the neuroectoderm. We have used an in vitro embryonic stem cell (ESC) differentiation model to investigate early events of neuronal differentiation and to define the(More)