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We describe the isolation and the sequence of the gene for the bifunctional enzyme dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase (DHFR-TS; EC and EC, respectively) from two pyrimethamine-resistant clones of Plasmodium falciparum, HB3 and 7G8. We have also derived the sequence of the DHFR portion of the gene, by amplification using polymerase(More)
Antigenic variation of infectious organisms is a major factor in evasion of the host immune response. However, there has been no definitive demonstration of this phenomenon in the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. In this study, cloned parasites were examined serologically and biochemically for the expression of erythrocyte surface antigens. A cloned(More)
BACKGROUND Anemia is an important public health and clinical problem. Observational studies have linked iron deficiency and anemia in children with many poor outcomes, including impaired cognitive development; however, iron supplementation, a widely used preventive and therapeutic strategy, is associated with adverse effects. Primary-school-aged children(More)
Erythrocytes (E) infected with asexual forms of malaria parasites exhibit surface antigenic variation. In Plasmodium falciparum infections, the variant Ag is the P. falciparum E membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1). This molecule may also mediate the adherence of infected E to host venular endothelium. We show here that parasite lines selected for increased(More)
The prevalence of and risk factors for vitamin D deficiency were examined for recent adult immigrants from East Africa living in Melbourne. Demographic data were collected via a face-to-face questionnaire and risk factors predicting deficiency were examined. Suboptimal levels <25 nmol/L were found in 61 patients (53%; 74% of women; 20% of men). Lower levels(More)
We used logistic regression to assess effectiveness of primaquine as Plasmodium vivax anti-relapse therapy using data extracted from studies of P. vivax relapses in Brazil, India, and Thailand. The risk of relapse in Thailand was 10 times that in India and twice that in Brazil. In comparison with no primaquine treatment, the risk of relapse decreased by(More)
Despite worldwide economic and scientific development, more than a quarter of the world's population remains anemic, and about half of this burden is a result of iron deficiency anemia (IDA). IDA is most prevalent among preschool children and women. Among women, iron supplementation improves physical and cognitive performance, work productivity, and(More)
BACKGROUND There is increasing interest in underlying socio-cultural, economic, environmental and health-system influences on the persistence of malaria. Vietnam is a Mekong regional 'success story' after dramatic declines in malaria incidence following introduction of a national control program providing free bed-nets, diagnosis and treatment. Malaria has(More)
BACKGROUND Antenatal anaemia, iron deficiency and common mental disorders (CMD) are prevalent in low- and middle-income countries. The aim of this study was to examine the direct and indirect effects of antenatal exposures to these risks and infant motor development. METHODS A cohort of women who were pregnant with a single foetus and between 12 and 20(More)
BACKGROUND Anemia due to iron deficiency is recognized as one of the major nutritional deficiencies in women and children in developing countries. Daily iron supplementation for pregnant women is recommended in many countries although there are few reports of these programs working efficiently or effectively. Weekly iron-folic acid supplementation (WIFS)(More)