Betty H. Robertson

Learn More
Sequences of 234 complete genomes and 631 hepatitis B surface antigen genes were used to assess the worldwide diversity of hepatitis B virus (HBV). Apart from the described two subgenotypes each for A and F, also B, C, and D divided into four subgenotypes each in the analysis of complete genomes supported by significant bootstrap values. The subgenotypes of(More)
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is transmitted by the fecal-oral route and causes sporadic and epidemic forms of acute hepatitis. Large waterborne HEV epidemics have been documented exclusively in developing countries. At least four major genotypes of HEV have been reported worldwide: genotype 1 (found primarily in Asian countries), genotype 2 (isolated from a(More)
The complete genomes were sequenced for ten hepatitis B virus (HBV) strains. Two of them, from Spain and Sweden, were most similar to genotype D, although encoding d specificity. Five of them were from Central America and belonged to genotype F. Two strains from Nicaragua and one from Los Angeles, USA, showed divergences of 3.1-4.1% within the small S gene(More)
A pairwise comparison of the nucleic acid sequence of 168 bases from 152 wild-type or unique cell culture-adapted strains of hepatitis A virus (HAV) revealed that HAV strains can be differentiated genetically into seven unique genotypes (I to VII). In general, the nucleotide sequence of viruses in different genotypes differs at 15 to 25% of positions within(More)
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a leading cause of liver cancer and cirrhosis, and Egypt has possibly the highest HCV prevalence worldwide. In this article we use a newly developed Bayesian inference framework to estimate the transmission dynamics of HCV in Egypt from sampled viral gene sequences, and to predict the public health impact of the virus. Our results(More)
To determine hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype distribution in China, a total of 148 HCV RNA positive serum samples were collected from nine geographic areas and subjected to RT-PCR followed by direct DNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the core, E1, and NS5B regions. HCV was genotyped in 139 (93.9%) samples. Among them subtype 1b was the most(More)
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is classified into genotypes A-F, which is important for clinical and etiological investigations. To establish a simple genotyping method, 68 full-genomic sequences and 106 S gene sequences were analyzed by the molecular evolutionary method. HBV genotyping with the S gene sequence is consistent with genetic analysis using the(More)
The complete genome sequences of hepatitis B virus (HBV) from 12 HBV-infected Yucpa Indians of Venezuela, a group with highly endemic HBV, were amplified and sequenced. The 12 isolates were closely related to each other, with 98.6-100% nucleotide identity. A phylogenetic tree based on the complete genome indicated clearly that they were genotype F. Three(More)
The coding region for the structural and nonstructural polypeptides of the type A12 foot-and-mouth disease virus genome has been identified by nucleotide sequencing of cloned DNA derived from the viral RNA. In addition, 704 nucleotides in the 5' untranslated region between the polycytidylic acid tract and the probable initiation codon of the first(More)
BACKGROUND Although about 1 percent of surgeons are infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV), transmission from surgeons to patients is thought to be uncommon. In July 1992, a 47-year-old woman became ill with acute hepatitis B after undergoing a thymectomy in which a thoracic-surgery resident who had had acute hepatitis B six months earlier assisted. (More)