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The aim of this functional magnetic resonance imaging study was to investigate differences in visuomotor control with increasing task complexity. Twelve right-handed volunteers were asked to perform their signature under different degrees of visual control: internally generated movement with closed eyes, signing with open eyes, tracking the line of the(More)
Biological soil crusts (biocrusts) are ubiquitous living covers in arid and semiarid regions, playing a critical role in soil erosion control in semiarid regions. So far, research separating the multiple mechanisms of erosion control by biocrusts has been limited. It was problematic to link the influence of biocrusts to existing erosion models. In the(More)
While substantial advances have been made in discovering how the brain learns and remembers, less is known about how the brain discards information, reorganizes information, or both. These topics are not only relevant to normal brain functioning but also speak to pathologies in which painful memories do not wane but are evoked time and again (e.g.,(More)
Here we report details of the European research initiative “Soil Crust International” (SCIN) focusing on the biodiversity of biological soil crusts (BSC, composed of bacteria, algae, lichens, and bryophytes) and on functional aspects in their specific environment. Known as the so-called “colored soil lichen community” (Bunte Erdflechtengesellschaft), these(More)
Biological soil crusts (BSCs) are communities of cryptogamic organisms, occurring in arid and semiarid regions all over the world. Based on both morphological identification and genetic analyses, we established a first cyanobacterial inventory using the biphasic approach for BSCs within two major biomes of southern Africa. The samples were collected at two(More)
BACKGROUND Administration of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonist ketamine during the perinatal period can produce a variety of behavioral and neuroanatomical changes. Our laboratory has reported reliable changes in learning and memory following a single dose of ketamine administered late in gestation. However, the nature of the drug-induced changes(More)
Biological soil crusts, formed by an association of soil particles with cyanobacteria, lichens, mosses, fungi and bacteria in varying proportions, live in or directly on top of the uppermost soil layer. To evaluate their role in the global carbon cycle, gas exchange measurements were conducted under controlled conditions. Moss-dominated soil crusts were(More)
Facilitative effects and plant–plant interactions are well known for higher plants, but there is a lack of information about their relevance in cryptogams. Additional information about facilitative effects between bryophytes and lichens would be an important contribution to recent research on positive plant–plant interactions, as these can have striking(More)
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