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Antigen-presenting cells (APC) are considered to play a critical role in promoting the (re)activation of potentially autoreactive T cells in multiple sclerosis (MS), an inflammatory demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system (CNS). B7-H1 (PD-L1) is a novel member of the B7 family proteins which exert costimulatory and immune regulatory functions.(More)
Human glioblastoma is a highly lethal tumor that is known for its immune inhibitory capabilities. B7-homologue 1 (B7-H1), a recently identified homologue of B7.1/2 (CD80/86), has been described to exert costimulatory and immune regulatory functions. We investigated the expression and the functional activity of B7-H1 in human glioma cells in vitro and in(More)
HLA-G is a non-classical major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I antigen with highly limited tissue distribution under non-pathological conditions. Although capable of acting as a peptide-presenting molecule, its strong immune-inhibitory properties identify HLA-G as a mediator of immune tolerance with specific relevance at immune-privileged sites(More)
OBJECTIVES Therapy for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis with natalizumab (Tysabri; Biogen Idec) has been shown to be effective in the reduction of the clinical relapse rate and disability progression. However, real-life longitudinal data, including years before baseline, are rare. METHODS An observational single-center study was carried out. We(More)
The particular microenvironment of the skeletal muscle can be the site of complex immune reactions. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) mediate inflammatory stimuli from pathogens and endogenous danger signals and link the innate and adaptive immune system. We investigated innate immune responses in human muscle. Analyzing TLR1-9 mRNA in cultured myoblasts and(More)
Treosulfan (dihydroxybusulfane, DHB, L-threitol-1,4-bis [methane sulfonate]) is a cytostatic alkylating agent with a favorable profile of side effects. Myelin-oligodendrocyte-glycoprotein (MOG)-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) induced in DA (RT1(av1)) rats resembles multiple sclerosis (MS) in many aspects since central nervous system(More)
A comparison of the human genome with that of the chimpanzee is an attractive approach to attempts to understand the specificity of a certain phenotype's development. The two karyotypes differ by one chromosome fusion, nine pericentric inversions, and various additions of heterochromatin to chromosomal telomeres. Only the fusion, which gave rise to human(More)
Peripheral antigen presenting cells (APCs) contribute to the maintenance of immune tolerance and are considered to play a critical role in promoting the (re)activation of autoreactive T cells in multiple sclerosis (MS). Interferon-beta (IFN-beta) is the principle immune-modulatory agent used in the treatment of MS, but its mechanism of action remains(More)
Human glioblastoma is a highly lethal tumor that is known for its immune inhibitory capabilities. B7-homologue 1 (B7-H1), a recently identified homologue of B7.1/2 (CD80/86), has been described to exert costimu-latory and immune regulatory functions. We investigated the expression and the functional activity of B7-H1 in human glioma cells in vitro and in(More)
Costimulatory signals play a key role in regulating T cell activation and are believed to have decisive influence in the inciting and perpetuating cellular effector mechanisms in autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS). Inducible costimulator protein (ICOS), a recently identified member of the CD28-family, presumably affects the differentiation(More)
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