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Regional changes of metabolite concentrations during human brain development were assessed by quantitative localized proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in vivo. Apart from measurements in young healthy adults, the study was based on regional spectra from 97 children who were either healthy or suffered from mental retardation, movement disorders,(More)
We report the preliminary results of an ongoing study of multiple sclerosis (MS) in childhood. The investigations include an analysis of the clinical picture and course. Multiple sclerosis in early childhood may present atypically, with a symptomatology suggesting diffuse encephalomyelitis, meningeal reaction, brain oedema, seizures, impaired consciousness(More)
Amongst 21 children with unclassified white matter diseases three patients could be characterised by an identical clinical picture, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) findings as a probably distinct entity. Following a normal early development they later showed rapidly progressive motor symptoms (ataxia,(More)
The brain morphology and chemistry of seven children with late infantile (4/7) and juvenile (3/7) forms of metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD) were investigated by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and localized proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Patients who were examined at least 6 months after the onset of symptoms (6/7) had severe(More)
Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is frequently associated with focal epilepsy due to cerebral tubers. Seizures are the first symptoms in most patients with brain involvement. These epilepsies are frequently severe, drug-resistant and may have a negative impact on the child's global development. Although most epilepsies are multicentric, these patients may(More)
Cerebral metabolic disturbances in patients with childhood adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD) were assessed by quantitative localized proton MRS. Patient monitoring by follow-up MRS studies served to identify putative markers for disease onset and progression. Whereas normal-appearing white matter of neurologically asymptomatic patients is characterized by slightly(More)
In vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy of 8 children (7-16 years) with established multiple sclerosis revealed distinct alterations in regional cerebral metabolism associated with different aspects of the disease: (1) Localized proton spectra (2 to 4-ml volumes of interest) from multiple sclerosis plaques were generally characterized by a decrease(More)
Combined MRI/MRS studies were performed in 9 girls with Rett syndrome of different ages. NAA, as marker of neuronal tissue, was found to decrease with increasing age. There was no evidence for a defective energy metabolism. The data point towards a probably secondary degenerative process in the pathogenesis of Rett syndrome.
Two children with hemimegalencephaly were examined by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and localized proton MR spectroscopy (MRS). In both cases, structural changes in the enlarged hemisphere included pachy- or polymicrogyria and gliosis of white matter. Associated metabolic disturbances included a dramatic reduction of glutamate and N-acetylaspartate (NAA)(More)
Companies are increasingly conducting life cycle assessments (LCA) of their products to understand potential product impacts on the environment, prioritize areas of innovation to create more sustainable products, and determine valid claims. This case study shows the results of product innovation by comparing an older (2007) and new (2013) version of a(More)