BACKGROUND Glutamate receptors of the AMPA type (AMPArs) mediate fast excitatory transmission in the dorsal horn and are thought to underlie perception of both acute and chronic pain. They are tetrameric structures made up from 4 subunits (GluR1-4), and subunit composition determines properties of the receptor. Antigen retrieval with pepsin can be used to… (More)
Ca(2+)-permeable AMPA receptors are densely expressed in the spinal dorsal horn, but their functional significance in pain processing is not understood. By disrupting the genes encoding GluR-A or GluR-B, we generated mice exhibiting increased or decreased numbers of Ca(2+)-permeable AMPA receptors, respectively. Here, we demonstrate that AMPA receptors are… (More)
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating disorder of the central nervous system in middle and old age that leads to progressive loss of spinal motoneurons. Transgenic mice overexpressing mutated human Cu(2+)/Zn(2+) superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) reproduce clinical features of the familial form of ALS. However, changes in SOD1 activity do not… (More)
To reveal whether increased Ca2+ permeability of glutamate AMPA channels triggered by the transgene for GluR-B(N) induces decline in motor functions and neurodegeneration in the spinal cord, we evaluated growth, motor coordination, and spinal reflexes in transgenic GluR-B(N) and wild-type (wt) mice. To reveal whether the transgenic GluR-B(N) expression… (More)
We construct monopole solutions in SU(2) Einstein-Yang-Mills-Higgs theory carrying magnetic charge n. For vanishing and small Higgs self-coupling, these multimonopole solutions are gravitationally bound. Their mass per unit charge is lower than the mass of the n = 1 monopole. For large Higgs self-coupling only a repulsive phase exists.