Betsy Williams Sanders

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Several investigators have used meta-analysis to compare the results of studies of gender differences on various spatial tests and have concluded that the magnitude of the gender difference in spatial ability is decreasing over time. The present study used meta-analytic techniques to compare the effect size (d) of the gender difference in 14 studies(More)
Navigating through large virtual environments using a head-mounted display (HMD) is difficult due to the spatial limitations of the tracking system. We conducted two experiments to examine methods of exploring large virtual spaces with an HMD under translation conditions different than normal walking. Experiment 1 compares locomotion in the virtual(More)
Virtual Environments presented through head-mounted displays (HMDs) are often explored on foot. Exploration on foot is useful since the afferent and efferent cues of physical locomotion aid spatial awareness. However, the size of the virtual environment that can be explored on foot is limited to the dimensions of the tracking space of the HMD unless other(More)
Physical rotations and translations are the basic constituents of navigation behavior, yet there is mixed evidence about their relative importance for complex navigation in virtual reality (VR). In the present experiment, 24 participants wore head-mounted displays and performed navigational search tasks with rotations/translations controlled by physical(More)
Plomin and Foch's conclusion that sex differences in cognition account for very little of the total variability is challenged by demonstrating that, on a complex test of spatial visualization, the difference between males and females accounts for a quite substantial portion of the variability of the test scores. 2 measures of spatial visualization--the ETS(More)
In this work, we present a method of “Walking In Place” (WIP) on the Nintendo Wii Fit Balance Board to explore a virtual environment. We directly compare our method to joystick locomotion and normal walking. The joystick proves inferior to physically walking and to WIP on the Wii Balance Board (WIP--Wii). Interestingly, we find that physically(More)
Virtual Environments presented through head-mounted displays (HMDs) are often explored on foot. Exploration on foot is useful since the inertial cues of physical locomotion aid spatial awareness. However, the size of the virtual environment that can be explored on foot is limited to the dimensions of the tracking space of the HMD, unless gain is scaled(More)
This paper presents results that demonstrate functional similarities in subjects' access to spatial knowledge (or <i>spatial representation</i>) between real and virtual environments. Such representations are important components of the transfer of reasoning ability and knowledge between these two environments. In particular, we present two experiments(More)
Distances are systematically underestimated in the virtual environments. In this work we explore the possibility of shifting the angular the angular declination from the horizon as a way of manipulating perceived distances in a head-mounted display (HMD). We find that shifting the horizon upward 11.5&#176; upward does not have an effect on distance(More)
Data from a large-scale study of cognitive abilities were used to test the hypothesis that there are handedness-related differences in spatial visualization. The spatial factor score of the cognitive test battery provided a measure of spatial visualization. Analyses revealed a sex X handedness X ethnicity interaction on the spatial factor, and no(More)