Betsy Williams Sanders

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Virtual Environments presented through head-mounted displays (HMDs) are often explored on foot. Exploration on foot is useful since the afferent and efferent cues of physical locomotion aid spatial awareness. However, the size of the virtual environment that can be explored on foot is limited to the dimensions of the tracking space of the HMD unless other(More)
In this work, we present a method of “Walking In Place” (WIP) on the Nintendo Wii Fit Balance Board to explore a virtual environment. We directly compare our method to joystick locomotion and normal walking. The joystick proves inferior to physically walking and to WIP on the Wii Balance Board (WIP--Wii). Interestingly, we find that physically(More)
Physical rotations and translations are the basic constituents of navigation behavior, yet there is mixed evidence about their relative importance for complex navigation in virtual reality (VR). In the present experiment, 24 participants wore head-mounted displays and performed navigational search tasks with rotations/translations controlled by physical(More)
Navigating through large virtual environments using a head-mounted display (HMD) is difficult due to the spatial limitations of the tracking system. We conducted two experiments to examine methods of exploring large virtual spaces with an HMD under translation conditions different than normal walking. Experiment 1 compares locomotion in the virtual(More)
Virtual Environments presented through head-mounted displays (HMDs) are often explored on foot. Exploration on foot is useful since the inertial cues of physical locomotion aid spatial awareness. However, the size of the virtual environment that can be explored on foot is limited to the dimensions of the tracking space of the HMD, unless gain is scaled(More)
Distances are systematically underestimated in the virtual environments. In this work we explore the possibility of shifting the angular the angular declination from the horizon as a way of manipulating perceived distances in a head-mounted display (HMD). We find that shifting the horizon upward 11.5° upward does not have an effect on distance(More)
In this work we present an inexpensive method of exploring a large immersive virtual environment (VE). More specifically, we describe a method of physically leaning to explore a VE on a Nintendo Wii Fit Balance Board, Wii-Leaning. In two experiments described in this paper, we directly compare our Wii-Leaning method to two other methods of exploring a large(More)
This paper presents results that demonstrate functional similarities in subjects' access to spatial knowledge (or <i>spatial representation</i>) between real and virtual environments. Such representations are important components of the transfer of reasoning ability and knowledge between these two environments. In particular, we present two experiments(More)
One way to permit free exploration of any sized virtual environment (VE) and provide some of the inertial cues of walking is to have users "walk in place" (WIP) [Williams et al. 2011]. With WIP, each step is treated as a virtual translation even though the participant remains in the same location. In our prior work [Williams et al. 2011], we had success in(More)