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Poverty and associated health, nutrition, and social factors prevent at least 200 million children in developing countries from attaining their developmental potential. We review the evidence linking compromised development with modifiable biological and psychosocial risks encountered by children from birth to 5 years of age. We identify four key risk(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the long-term effects of iron deficiency in infancy. DESIGN Longitudinal follow-up study of children who had been tested and treated for iron deficiency as infants. SETTING Periurban community near San Jose, Costa Rica. PARTICIPANTS Of the original 191 participants, 87% were reevaluated at 11 to 14 years old (average age: 12.3(More)
The behavioral effects of iron deficiency and its treatment were evaluated in a double-blind randomized controlled community-based study of 191 Costa Rican infants, 12 to 23 months of age, with various degrees of iron deficiency. The Bayley Scales of Infant Development were administered before and both 1 week and 3 months after IM or oral administration of(More)
Inequality between and within populations has origins in adverse early experiences. Developmental neuroscience shows how early biological and psychosocial experiences affect brain development. We previously identified inadequate cognitive stimulation, stunting, iodine deficiency, and iron-deficiency anaemia as key risks that prevent millions of young(More)
Human studies have shown that iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia in infants are associated with behavioral impairment, but the periods of brain development most susceptible to iron deficiency have not been established. In the present study, rhesus monkeys were deprived of iron by dietary iron restriction during prenatal (n=14, 10 microg Fe/g diet)(More)
BACKGROUND Iron-deficiency anemia has been associated with lowered scores on tests of mental and motor development in infancy. However, the long-term developmental outcome of infants with iron deficiency is unknown, because developmental tests in infancy do not predict later intellectual functioning. METHODS This study is a follow-up evaluation of a group(More)
This study tested the hypothesis that infants with iron-deficiency anemia show behaviors, such as increased proximity to caregivers, increased wariness or hesitance, and decreased activity, that could contribute to "functional isolation." The behavior of 52 Costa Rican 12- to 23-month-old infants with iron-deficiency anemia was contrasted with that of 139(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the relationship between cosleeping and sleep problems in cultures with very different sleep practices. DESIGN Interview study. SETTING Families in urban Japan and the United States identified through pediatric and other professional contacts. PARTICIPANTS Parents of healthy 6- to 48-month-old children (56 Japanese parents and(More)
Infants are at high risk for iron deficiency and iron-deficiency anemia. This review summarizes evidence of long-term effects of iron deficiency in infancy. Follow-up studies from preschool age to adolescence report poorer cognitive, motor, and social-emotional function, as well as persisting neurophysiologic differences. Research in animal models points to(More)
Iron deficiency (ID) is common in pregnant women and infants worldwide. Rodent models show that ID during gestation/lactation alters neurometabolism, neurotransmitters, myelination, and gene/protein profiles before and after iron repletion at weaning. Human infants with iron deficiency anemia test lower in cognitive, motor, social-emotional, and(More)